Agra Air Action Plan launched on 1st June 2019, prepared in collaboration with Clean Air Asia.
A. Air Action Plan
Air Action Plan are set of measures and initiatives that the State Governments and Departments along with the inclusion of NGOs and CSOs undertake to provide a clean and healthy environment to the citizens as envisaged in the Constitution of India.
The Agra City Action Plan has laid down short- term and long-term plans for tackling pollution in the city. Under various had such as tackling vehicle emission, industrial pollution there mix of short – term and long – term plans. They are plans to mitigate resuspension of dust, road design improvement, burning of open waste, construction, and demolition activities etc.
http://www.uppcb.com/pdf/ACTION-PLAN_100519.pdf (Page 82 – Page 91)
http://www.uppcb.com/pdf/notice_171017.pdf (Page 29 – Page 37)
Under the Government of India Smart City Mission, Agra is one of 100 cities which has been chosen. In the approach of the Smart Cities Mission, the objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and decent quality life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment. The focus is on sustainable and inclusive development and the idea is to look at compact areas to make them more citizen friendly and self-sustainable.
Agra Smart City vision is based on the aspirations of its people and the analytical assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the city. The list of citizen suggestions included themes such as “tourist-friendly”, “memorable”, “livable”, “culturally-vibrant”, “economically-vibrant”, “protect and celebrate heritage”, “urban mobility”, and “sustainable”. (http://agrasmartcity.in/smartagra.aspx?smt_id=4&smtid=2)
The name ‘SMART AGRA’ very cleverly and innovatively is an acronym. Each letter stands for a goal and a vision. This is the Strategic Plan.
http://agrasmartcity.in/smartagra.aspx?smtid=3&smt_id=6 (Strategic Plan)
They also have Area- Development Plan and a Pan City Plan.
http://agrasmartcity.in/smartagra.aspx?smtid=3&smt_id=7 (Area Development Plan)
http://agrasmartcity.in/smartagra.aspx?smtid=3&smt_id=8 (Pan City Plan)
B.Monitoring Network of the city
There is 1 Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Agra, which is installed in Agra Nagar Nigam Office (Sanjay Palace) and according to the Air Action Plan 2 Manual Ambient Air Quality Stations namely at Bodla and Nunhai.
It is surprising as the Taj Trapezium Zone Area (Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan (shared report) states that there are 8 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations which include 1 CAAQMS, 1 Air Monitoring Station installed by Archeological Survey of India and 6 Manual Ambient Air Monitoring Station)
Even the Source Apportionment Study done by Urban Emission states that there are 6 Manual Air Monitors and 1 Continuous Air Quality Monitoring System, but neither the Agra Nagar Nigam website, Smart City website or the Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board website mentions the names of the six station nor do they give the air quality index.
According to a news articles published in The Hindu dated 19th November, 2018, ‘One air quality sensor for an entire city?’, states there are 8 air quality monitoring stations. Out of these 8, 7 are manually operated and 1 is a Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitor
C. Government Policies, Acts, Laws, Press Release
1. Central Act and Policies
It is the Principal Act enacted in pursuance of the Stockholm Declaration, 1972 for prevention, control, and abatement of Air Pollution. They were amended in 1987 giving the Pollution Control Boards more authority and power.
Rules were enacted to support the Principal Act in better management and control of Air Pollution
2. State Acts and Policies.
Most states formulated Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules which deal with meetings of the Board and its committees, power and duties of the Member-Secretary and appointment of employees, power and functions of the Board, the State Air Laboratory, the procedure to deal with appeals and the budget.
The report details out a road map for betterment of the TTZ Area. There are measures which have been proposed and are being implemented.
D.State and National Set Standards
Ambient air quality refers to the condition or quality of air surrounding us in the outdoors. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are the standards for ambient air quality set by Central Pollution Control board (CPCB) that is applicable nationwide. The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
A. Source Apportionment Study
Papers on Source Apportionment
The study was conducted at sub-urban and rural site of Agra. The main aim was to characterize Water Soluble Inorganic Ions (WSII) in terms of spatial, seasonal and formation characteristics and identify the major sources responsible for the pollution of WSII in PM2.5 particles using different source apportionment models. WSII showed slight variations in seasonal and spatial characteristics, the major sources of pollution were found to be similar. Four sources were identified as biomass burning (29.1% and 27.4%), secondary aerosols (26.2% and 22.5%), coal combustion (22.3% and 26.9%) and soil dust (22.4% and 23.1%) at sub-urban and rural sites. The results of case study showed that among different types of biomass fuels cow dung cakes showed maximum PM2.5 emissions while LPG showed minimum PM2.5 emissions.
The study analyses the quantification of 16 US EPA priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in total suspended ambient particulate matter collected from an industrial site in Agra using gas chromatography. This study was conducted to apportion sources of PAH in the ambient air. The study reflects a blend of emission from diesel and natural gas as the major source of PAH in the city along with contribution from emission of coal, coke, and gasoline.
B. Pervious Year Trend
A. City-specific studies
particles and assess their associated health effects in adults and children during the period from December 2015 to February 2016.
The study throws light on the major factors responsible for pollution in Agra Industrial Sector. The study has been performed using the concept of multi-attribute decision making analysis in order to deal with the various factors associated with different component of the environment. The study concluded that air is polluted in the industrial cluster is because there exist all 3 which substances which show signs of significant systematic or organ system toxicity.
The study assesses the quantitative estimations of air pollution health impacts and monetary burden on people living in Agra City. The study has been conducted for the period from 2002 to 2014. The model used is an air quality health impact assessment software developed by World Health Organisation ‘Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution’. The study concluded that the state pollution control authorities of Uttar Pradesh needs to put forward measures to control and reduce PM10 levels in the city to decrease the economic costs of air pollution-related health impact.
Exposure to airborne particulate matter results in the deposition of millions of particles in the lung; consequently, there is need for monitoring them particularly in indoor environments. Case study was conducted in three different microenvironments, i.e., urban, rural, and roadside to examine the elemental bioavailability in fine particulate matter and its potential health risk.
This study presents the statistical regression and specific computational intelligence-based models for the forecasting of hourly NO2 concentrations at a historical monument Taj Mahal, Agra. The study reveals analysis conducted for last 10 years air pollution data; the concentration is higher during the months of November. Mainly the study was to test the models used and it was concluded study regression as well as neural network with multilayer perceptron were used for designing the air pollution-forecasting models at historical monument, Taj Mahal, Agra. It gives the better air pollutant-forecasting approaches model based on ANN techniques for modelling continuously hourly time series data with PCA approaches performed better than the MLR techniques at Taj Mahal, Agra. A unique approach, based on general linear models, PCA, was employed in selecting the significant input variables. The model is built on measured meteorological variables and concentrations of the air pollutant concentrations.
The study analyses Ozone as an air pollutant, which is a photochemical smog and has been acknowledged to have adverse effects on human health, vegetation, and material. Unplanned urban and industrial growth and rise in population are the main factors that had led to air pollution problems. The air mass trajectories have been calculated using the HYSPLIT 4 and FLEXTRA model. The maximum hourly levels of these pollutants exceeded 116.5 ppb for O3, 96.2 ppb for NO2, 16 ppb for SO2, 4.60 ppm for CO and 188 µg/m3 for PM2.5. There is obvious diurnal variation in the concentration of surface ozone which clearly follows the diurnal variation of atmospheric temperature. The effect of wind on pollutants appears to be noteworthy. It was also found that, the maximum average concentrations of SO2 and O3 occurred at humidity ≤30% pinpointing for strong vertical mixing. For CO, NO2 and PM2.5 the maximum average concentrations occurred at humidity below 40%.
The study analyses the measurement of PM10 and PM2.5 carried out at three locations in Agra. PM10 and PM2.5 were collected by respirable dust sampler and Wins Anderson impactor respectively. The study concluded that higher concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were observed near St. John’s College followed by Dayalbagh and Balkeshwar for PM10 and for PM2.5 the concentration was higher in Balkeshwar followed by Dayalbagh.
The study analyses the three monthly 24 hours samples of airborne aerosols (PM10 and PM2.5) at an urban and rural site of Agra from May 2006 and March 2008. Weekday/weekend variations of PM10 and PM2.5 have been studied at both monitoring sites. Significant seasonal variations of particulate pollutants were obtained using the daily average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 during the study period. Three factors were identified using Principal Component Analysis at the sampling sites comprising resuspension of road dust due to vehicular activities, solid waste incineration, and industrial emission at urban site whereas resuspension of soil dust due to vehicular emission, construction activities and wind blown dust carrying industrial emission, were common sources at rural site.
The study measures the size distribution of atmospheric aerosol at Dayalbagh, Agra during July to September 1998. The anions were analysed by Dionex DX – 500 ion chromatograph while atomic absorption and colorimetric techniques were used for the analysis of cations.
B. News Articles
A. Urban Local Bodies notification on Air.
B. Communication Portal for local government (e – governance)
Details with respect to grievance redressal officer has bee uploaded through a notification which gives the contact details of the Officer
C. Public engagement activities.
A. CAST Study
B. Technical Knowledge Sharing
A. Way Forward
B. Tool Kit