Clean Air \"Be a part of the Solution\"


Guidance Framework

Is a Framework prepared through a series of consultations by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Clean Air Asia was developed to provide guidance in implementing the long-term vision for urban air quality in Asia.

A. Air Action Plan

Air Action Plan are set of measures and initiatives that the State Governments and Departments along with the inclusion of NGOs and CSOs undertake to provide a clean and healthy environment to the citizens as envisaged in the Constitution of India.

Karnataka State Pollution Control Board prepared a Clean Air Action Plan.

B.Smart City Plan

Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) has submitted a smart city proposal which has enlisted various Area Based Development Projects and Pan City Project. There are 10 area based development projects and 8 pan proposals.

Area Based Development Projects include

  • Revitalization of historic heart of the city
  • Integrated mobility towards creating vibrant destination
  • Redevelopment of historic economic centres
  • Innovation of downstream clean up of drainage system
  • Protection and redevelopment of centrally located parkland
  • Increasing affordable housing stock through slum redevelopment; and
  • Retrofitting of a health care facility

Pan City Projects include:

  • Governance – Grievance management system, municipal finance reforms, improvement of neighborhood safety
  • Public Services – Bengaluru Travel Related Information and Planning System and Open data for citizen information and innovation

C. Monitoring Network of the city

The Bangalore City has 7 Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Stations (CAAQMS) and 13 Manual Air Monitoring Station.

The monitoring data can be accessed through Karnataka State Pollution Control Board website (It has data from 2013 onwards)

The data for the months of April 2013 to December 2013 can be accessed at

D. Government Policies, Acts, Laws, Press Release

1.Central Acts

  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, amended 1987,

It is the Principal Act enacted in pursuance of the Stockholm Declaration, 1972 for prevention, control, and abatement of Air Pollution. They were amended in 1987 giving the Pollution Control Boards more authority and power.

  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1982

Rules were enacted to support the Principal Act in better management and control of Air Pollution

2.State Acts and Policies.

  • Karnataka Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1983

E. State and National Set Standards

  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 2009

Ambient air quality refers to the condition or quality of air surrounding us in the outdoors. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are the standards for ambient air quality set by Central Pollution Control board (CPCB) that is applicable nationwide. The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.

A. Source Apportionment Study

  • Study of Ambient Air Quality Trends and Analysis of Contributing Factors in Bengaluru, India, Oriental Journal of Chemistry, Volume 33 Number 2, 2017 – Amrita Thakur

Presence of certain substances in air adversely affects human health, environment and climate. These chemicals are mainly added due to human activities. Maintaining air quality requires regular monitoring, identification of source of pollution and adoption of preventive measure. Bangalore a city in India has grown in size and population recently due to growth of IT industry. This rapid growth and related civic activity has affected its ecological services. The objective of this study is to identify air pollution trend in Bangalore and investigate the factors contributing towards it. Data for analysis has been obtained from state pollution control board website and has been used without any modification. Three criteria pollutants measured regularly and for longest period of time, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and respirable particulate matter (PM10) have been investigated for air quality analysis.

  • Urban Emission led by Sarath Guttikunda under their program Air Pollution and Assessment of Knowledge Program have conducted an analysis for the Greater Bengaluru Region of Air Quality, Emission and Source Contributions.

The analysis has found that the major contributor to the air pollution is the transport sector which adds 26.5% followed by dust 23%. The report presented an analysis of the particulate pollution measured and modeled for the city. While the regulatory focus is on 26 Air Quality, Emissions, and Source Contributions Analysis for the Greater Bengaluru Region of India particulate pollution, given the changing mix of emission sources, pollutants like NO2, NO, CO, VOCs, and Ozone, are expected to rise and will need a similar emission control plan.

  • Source Apportionment Study for the City of Bengaluru- CSTEP

CSTEP has initiated a source apportionment (SA) study for Bengaluru as per the request of the Government of Karnataka.

The main goal of the study is to provide evidence towards creating a Clean Air Action Plan for Bengaluru and implementing strategies for improving air quality. This activity will entail collecting air samples from multiple locations over a period of a year, chemical analysis and receptor modelling. The analysis will identify the sources of pollution (elements, ions, dioxins etc.). This study will help to understand the following:

  1. Understanding various air pollutants, along with their ambient concentrations and the air toxicity levels in different parts of the city.
  2. Quantifying sectoral contribution in air pollution with the help of chemical analyses and receptor modelling of the analysed samples.
  3. Determining the impact of sources on ambient air quality under different management, intervention, and control options with the help of an emissions inventory and dispersion modelling.

  • Air Quality assessment, emission inventory and source apportionment study for Bangalore City, TERI, February 2010

The Energy and Research Institute conducted a source apportionment study on behalf of CPCB. The main objective of the study was:

  • To measure baseline air pollutants and air toxic levels at different parts of Bangalore, which includes ‘hotspots’ on kerb sides as well.
  • To inventorise various pollutants in Bengaluru.
  • To project emission inventories under different control options.
  • To conduct source apportionment study of particulate matter.
  • Preparation of a quality action plan after prioritizing of control options.

B.Pervious Year Trend

There are pervious year trend graphs from year 2006 – 2011 can be found on the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board website for monitoring station present at

  1. Graphite India
  2. KHB Industrial Area
  3. Peenya Industrial Area
  4. AMCO Batteries, Mysore Road
  5. Yeshwanthpur Police Station
  6. Victoria Hospital

A. City specific studies

  • Air Pollution in Bangalore, India: an eight-year trend analysis, International Journal Environmental Technology and Management, Volume 19 Issue 3-4, 2017 – Anitha K. Chinnaswamy, Maria Cecilia D. Galvez, Hawa Balisane, Quynh T. Nguyen, Raouf N.G. Naguib, Nigel Trodd, Ian M. Marshall, Norlaily Yaacob, Gil Nanato C. Santos, Edgar A. Vallar, Mohyi Shaker, Nilmini Wickramasinghe and Tuan Nghia Ton

This paper provides a critical analysis of the air pollution trend in the city over the period 2006-2013 at six specific locations where measurements have been consistently recorded. It also discusses the potential health implications pertaining to exceeding levels of pollutants where these are applicable. In order to attain informed decisions on the protection of the health of populations from elevated levels of air pollution, an understanding of spatial-temporal variance of air pollutant patterns is necessary. The study highlights the fact that Bangalore and other similar developing cities do not have an adequate number of fixed monitoring stations that could provide a complete coverage of the air pollution levels for the entire city. It is suggested that this can be overcome by using geospatial interpolation techniques that provide a complete coverage of the levels of pollutants, as well as assist in mapping health characteristics of the population, in order to reach evidence-based decisions and target effective interventions.

  • Air Pollution in Bangalore, India: A Six Year trend and Health Implication, International Conference on Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology, Communication and Control, Environment and Management, 2014 – Anitha K. Chinnaswamy, Maria Cecilia D. Galvez, Hawa Balisane, Quynh T. Nguyen, Raouf N.G. Naguib, Nigel Trodd, Ian M. Marshall, Norlaily Yaacob, Gil Nanato C. Santos, Edgar A. Vallar, Mohyi Shaker, Nilmini Wickramasinghe and Tuan Nghia Ton

Air pollution is increasingly becoming a global concern and is believed to be amongst the leading causes of death in the world today. Developing countries, with rapidly growing economies, are struggling between the focus on economic development and curbing air pollution emissions. Bangalore is one of India’s fastest growing metropolises and, although benefiting economically due to its rapid development, has a rapidly deteriorating environment. This paper provides a critical analysis of the air pollution trend in the city over the period 2005-2011 at 6 specific locations where measurements have been consistently recorded. It also discusses the potential health implications pertaining to exceeding levels of pollutants where these are applicable.

  • Meteorological parameters and pollutants on asthma exacerbation in Bangalore, India – an ecological retrospective time-series study, Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, Volume 28 Issue 2, 2017 – Kirthana U. Kunikullaya, Ambarish Vijayaraghava, P. Asha, Radhika Kunnavil and B.V. Murali Mohan

This study quantitatively analyzed the relation between acute exacerbations of asthma and related admissions to the hospital with the air pollution and the meteorological conditions during that time. Data regarding the daily hospital admissions in about 13 tertiary care centers in Bangalore, Karnataka and air pollutant levels and the meteorological conditions prevailing during each day over a year were collected from the Karnataka State pollution control board and meteorology departments, respectively. An average daily asthma admission of 4.84±2.91, with clear seasonal variation and autocorrelations between meteorological parameters and pollutants was observed. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that average temperature (p=0.005) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (p=0.034) were the two factors that were affecting the number of admissions. Quasi-poisson regression analysis using multi-pollutants and meteorological variables showed that particulate matter and NO2 had significant lag effect for up to 5 days (p<0.05) and rainfall for 1 day (p<0.001).  In Bangalore city, levels of NO2 and particulate matter, temperature, rainfall, and season increase asthma exacerbations.

  • Effect of Outdoor Air Pollution on Pulmonary Function of Non-smoking auto-rickshaw drivers in Bangalore, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 4 Issue 1, 2017 – Vedesh Kumar Babu, Komaladevi S Damodar

Rapid industrialization and urbanization of Bangalore has led to a rise in the levels of ambient air pollution. Studies show that exposure to ambient air pollution is detrimental to health. Auto‑rickshaw drivers are highly susceptible to the effects of this pollution. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of decrease in lung function of non‑smoking auto‑rickshaw drivers exposed to outdoor air pollution with relation to normal predicted values.

  • Data quality issues in the GIS modelling of air pollution and cardiovascular mortality in Bangalore, International Journal of Information Quality, Volume 4 Issue 1, 2015 – Anitha K. Chinnaswamy, Maria Cecilia D. Galvez, Hawa Balisane, Quynh T. Nguyen, Raouf N.G. Naguib, Nigel Trodd, Ian M. Marshall, Norlaily Yaacob, Gil Nanato C. Santos, Edgar A. Vallar, Mohyi Shaker, Nilmini Wickramasinghe and Tuan Nghia Ton

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the world’s number one cause of mortality. Research in recent years has begun to illustrate a significant association between CVD and air pollution. As most of these studies employed traditional statistics, cross-sectional or meta-analysis methods, a study undertaken by the authors was designed to investigate how a geographical information system (GIS) could be used to develop a more efficient spatio-temporal method of analysis than the currently existing methods mainly based on statistical inference. Using Bangalore, India, as a case study, demographic, environmental and CVD mortality data was sought from the city. However, critical deficiencies in the quality of the environmental data and mortality records were identified and quantified. This paper discusses the shortcomings in the quality of mortality data, together with the development of a framework based on WHO guidelines to improve the defects, henceforth considerably improving data quality.

  • Increased risk of respiratory illness associated with kerosene fuel use among women and children in urban Bangalore, India, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Volume 72 Issue 2, 2015 – Jae-Young Choi, Jill Baumgartner, Sarah Harnden, Bruce H. Alexander, Robert J town, Georgee D’Souza, Gurumurthy Ramachandran

The study investigated the associations between kerosene use and the likelihood of having respiratory symptoms or illness using multivariate logistic regression models. Among adult women, cooking with kerosene was associated with cough (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.99), bronchitis (OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.37), phlegm (OR=1.51; 95% CI 0.98 to 2.33) and chest illness (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.53), relative to cooking with LPG in the multivariate models. Among children, living in a household cooking with kerosene was associated with bronchitis (OR=1.91; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.13), phlegm (OR=2.020; 95% CI 1.29 to 3.74) and chest illness (OR=1.70; 95% CI 0.99 to 2.90) after adjusting for other covariates. We also found associations between kerosene use and wheezing, difficulty breathing and asthma in adults and cough and wheezing in children, though these associations were not statistically significant. Women and children in households cooking with kerosene were more likely to have respiratory symptoms and illnesses compared with those in households cooking with LPG. Transitioning from kerosene to LPG for cooking may improve respiratory health among adult women and children in this population.

  • A study on air pollution by automobiles in Bangalore City, Management and Research Practice, Issue 3, 2012 – Mahadevappa Harish

This Paper has made an attempt to study on urban air pollution in Bangalore city by emission of gases by vehicles which emit from them. The present day environment crisis demands a change in attitude, which initiatives can be taken to rescue environment from destruction in the city of Bangalore. But the urban areas have a big share in the present day environmental problems from the automobiles throughout the world. This will finally focus on the attempt on the effects due to increase in the vehicle ratio in the city. Based on the facts and data obtained, the scenarios regarding future vehicle growth and their impact for travel is discussed to overcome emissions problems. The main objective is based on the emission of vehicles and their problems. In future vehicle-based emissions testing should be conducted for at least once in three months in Bangalore to gain a more accurate picture of the emissions that Occur from the specific vehicles in this city. The results posed by important issues on transport and facts of existing situation will be used for the recommendations.

  • Assessment of air quality near traffic intersections in Bangalore city using air quality indices, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 12 Issue 3, 2007 – S.M.Shiva Nagendra, K.Venugopal and Steven L.Jones

Air quality indices are used for local and regional air quality management in many metro cities of the world. In the present study, air quality indices have been calculated using the US Environmental Protection Agency procedure to assess the status of ambient air quality near busy traffic intersections in Bangalore, India. The measured 24 h average criteria pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter for the period from 1997 to 2005 at three air quality monitoring stations are used for the development of AQIs. The result indicated that the air pollution at all the three air quality monitoring stations can be characterized as ‘good’ and ‘moderate’ for SO2 and NOx concentrations for all days from 1997 to 2004. Analysis of air quality indices values for both forms of suspended matter concentrations during 1999–2005 indicates 91% and 94% of the times days are in category ‘good’ and ‘moderate’. The yearly average air quality indices values of respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter concentrations indicated decreasing trend and are coming under the category of ‘good’ and ‘moderate’ form the category of ‘poor’ and ‘very poor’.

  • Air Quality Index in Industrial Areas of Bangalore City – A Case Study, India, Journal of Industrial Pollution Control – S. Harinath and Usha N. Murthy

The present study indicates that particulate matter is the major air pollutant in the study area. In the entire study area, particulate pollutants exceeded the permissible standards, but gaseous pollutants were within the permissible limits. The industrial activities and transportation activities are mainly responsible for the high pollution load in the ambient air of the area. The present study further suggests that public awareness can play a major role in planning and developing innovative ways to solve health, transport and related air pollution problems and the strategic plan for their implementation.

  1. News articles

  • Chennai, Bengaluru and Mumbai had ‘cleanest air’ in lockdown, 24th September 2020, The Times of India

  • Take a deep breath, the Bengaluru has clean air, 31st July, 2020, The New Indian Express

  • System to measure air quality using satellite data launched in Bengaluru, 31st July, 2020, The Indian Express

  • Bengaluru situation is grim when it comes to air pollution, 10th July, 2020, Deccan Herald

  • With Bengaluru’s improved air quality, Little Tiger Pierrot Butterfly sighted, 3rd July 2020, The Times of India

  • Air quality improved in Bengaluru, Hyderabad but deteriorated in Chennai post lockdown, 25th June 202, The News Minute

  • Air pollution dropped 28% in Bengaluru during lockdown, 24th June 2020, Citizen Matters

  • All about Bengaluru’s action plan to fight air pollution, 8th June 2020, Citizen Matters

  • Toxic heavy metals in Bengaluru’s air, finds study, 4th June 2020, Citizen Matters

  • Toxic heavy metals plentiful in Bengaluru’s air, find 2019 study, 2nd June 2020, The News Minute

  • How tech intervention can help air pollution crisis in Bengaluru, 12th May 2020, Deccan Herald  

  • Air quality in Bengaluru improves significantly post the lockdown, 6th May 2020, Business Line

  • Lockdown unlocks fresh air, Bengaluru breathes easy, 2nd May 2020, The New Indian Express

  • Coronavirus lockdown: A ‘detox’ for Bengaluru, 18th April 2020, Deccan Herald

  • Lockdown has improved air quality in Bengaluru, 5th April 2020, The Times of India

  • Bengaluru’s air quality improves, 28th March 2020, The Times of India

  • Nature reclaims its zone as lockdown ups air quality, 25th March 2020, The News Minute

  • Janta Curfew: Bengaluru air comes back to life, 23rd March, 2020, Deccan Herald

  • Now, on a clear day you can see Bengaluru, 21st March 2020, Deccan Chronicle

  • In dusty Bengaluru, more kids now need inhalers, 28th February, 2020, The New Indian Express–2109623.html

  • Workplace hazards: How traffic cops are affected by pollution, stress and fatigue, 19th February 2020, Citizen Matters

  • Monitoring Bengaluru air quality from highrises is faulty: Study, 22nd January 2020, The Times of India

  • KSPCB’s 75% air quality monitor stations not functional, 18th December 2019, Deccan Herald

  • How e-vehicles can check Bengaluru’s air pollution woes, 18th December, 2019, Deccan Herald

  • Bengaluru’s air quality sparks debate between pollution control board, experts, 24th November 2019, Mint

  • GASP! The Pollution Board says Bengaluru’s air is getting better, 21st November 2019, Bangalore Mirror

  • Bengalureans breathe in cleaner air on rainy days, 9th November 2019, The Times of India

  • KSPCB says rain helped air quality during Deepavali celebrations, but did it really? 29th October 2019, The Hindu

  • Bengaluru has high air quality degradation compared with rest of South India: IISC professor SK Satheesh, 17th October, 2019

  • ORR has worst air quality among Bengaluru stretches, 12th September 2019, The Times of India

  • Purifiers can’t clean up Bengaluru’s air, 11th September 2019, Deccan Herald

  • To combat Bengaluru’s air pollution, BBMP needs more than just air purifiers: Experts, 26th August 2019, The News Minute

  • Now, a 44-point action plan to check deteriorating air quality Bengaluru, 11th May 2019, The Hindu

  • You think Delhi is polluted? Bengaluru’s pollution levels will leave you breathless, 27th April 2019, Bangalore Mirror

  • Air Pollution in Bengaluru to go up by 74% by 2030: Study, 23rd January 2019, The Hindu

  • Tackling air quality crisis: a chance for Bengaluru to lead the way, 7th January 2019. Citizen Matters

  • Very soon Bengaluru may need an ‘Air’ lift, 7th December 2018, Economic Times

  • KSPCB: Control air pollution at Metro sites, 28th November 2019, The New Indian Express

  • Supreme court order helps in cut down 33% air pollution in Bangalore, 10th November 2018, HansIndia

  • Air quality very poor in Bangalore post Diwali, 9th November 2018, The New Indian Express

  • Bengaluru fails to battle air pollution as fog clouds data, 1st November 2018, The Times of India

  • Air pollution in Bengaluru: PM 2.5 above limit 9 of 16 stations, 31st October 2018, The Times of India

  • Why has the KSPCB failed to arrest air pollution in Bengaluru, 25th October, 2018, Citizen Matters

  • Bengaluru air pollution study raises concerns of personal exposure risk, 24th February 2018, Deccan Herald

  • Air pollution levels in Karnataka’s 11 cities and towns cross limits, 23rd February 2018, The Times of India

  • Bengaluru breathes polluted air during peak traffic hours: Study, 21st February 2018, The Hindu

  • Here’s where you can get air quality data for Bengaluru, 21st February 2018, Citizens Matter

  • Report: Bengaluru ranks poorly in air quality, 11th January 2017, The Hindu

  • Bengaluru fares worse than Delhi in air quality, 7th April 2015, The Hindu

A.Communication Portal for local government (e – governance)

  • Under the smart city proposal, they have planned to build a grievance management portal.

A. CAST Study

Clean Air Asia has devised a tool to calculate how a city is with tackling the issue of air pollution. Bangalore is one of the 30 CAST study cities.


After taking into consideration all the aspects, the results have shown to be that the city is still in a developing stage to combat air pollution.

  1. Technical Knowledge Sharing

A. Way Forward 

B. Tool Kit