A. Air Action Plan
Air Action Plan are set of measures and initiatives that the State Governments and Departments along with the inclusion of NGOs and CSOs undertake to provide a clean and healthy environment to the citizens as envisaged in the Constitution of India.
Karnataka State Pollution Control Board prepared a Clean Air Action Plan.
B.Smart City Plan
Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) has submitted a smart city proposal which has enlisted various Area Based Development Projects and Pan City Project. There are 10 area based development projects and 8 pan proposals.
Area Based Development Projects include
Pan City Projects include:
C. Monitoring Network of the city
The Bangalore City has 7 Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Stations (CAAQMS) and 13 Manual Air Monitoring Station.
The monitoring data can be accessed through Karnataka State Pollution Control Board website
https://kspcb.gov.in/ambient_air_quality.html (It has data from 2013 onwards)
The data for the months of April 2013 to December 2013 can be accessed at https://kspcb.gov.in/Air%20Quality%20Deatils.html
D. Government Policies, Acts, Laws, Press Release
It is the Principal Act enacted in pursuance of the Stockholm Declaration, 1972 for prevention, control, and abatement of Air Pollution. They were amended in 1987 giving the Pollution Control Boards more authority and power.
Rules were enacted to support the Principal Act in better management and control of Air Pollution
2.State Acts and Policies.
E. State and National Set Standards
Ambient air quality refers to the condition or quality of air surrounding us in the outdoors. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are the standards for ambient air quality set by Central Pollution Control board (CPCB) that is applicable nationwide. The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
A. Source Apportionment Study
Presence of certain substances in air adversely affects human health, environment and climate. These chemicals are mainly added due to human activities. Maintaining air quality requires regular monitoring, identification of source of pollution and adoption of preventive measure. Bangalore a city in India has grown in size and population recently due to growth of IT industry. This rapid growth and related civic activity has affected its ecological services. The objective of this study is to identify air pollution trend in Bangalore and investigate the factors contributing towards it. Data for analysis has been obtained from state pollution control board website and has been used without any modification. Three criteria pollutants measured regularly and for longest period of time, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and respirable particulate matter (PM10) have been investigated for air quality analysis.
The analysis has found that the major contributor to the air pollution is the transport sector which adds 26.5% followed by dust 23%. The report presented an analysis of the particulate pollution measured and modeled for the city. While the regulatory focus is on 26 Air Quality, Emissions, and Source Contributions Analysis for the Greater Bengaluru Region of India particulate pollution, given the changing mix of emission sources, pollutants like NO2, NO, CO, VOCs, and Ozone, are expected to rise and will need a similar emission control plan.
CSTEP has initiated a source apportionment (SA) study for Bengaluru as per the request of the Government of Karnataka.
The main goal of the study is to provide evidence towards creating a Clean Air Action Plan for Bengaluru and implementing strategies for improving air quality. This activity will entail collecting air samples from multiple locations over a period of a year, chemical analysis and receptor modelling. The analysis will identify the sources of pollution (elements, ions, dioxins etc.). This study will help to understand the following:
The Energy and Research Institute conducted a source apportionment study on behalf of CPCB. The main objective of the study was:
B.Pervious Year Trend
There are pervious year trend graphs from year 2006 – 2011 can be found on the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board website for monitoring station present at
A. City specific studies
This paper provides a critical analysis of the air pollution trend in the city over the period 2006-2013 at six specific locations where measurements have been consistently recorded. It also discusses the potential health implications pertaining to exceeding levels of pollutants where these are applicable. In order to attain informed decisions on the protection of the health of populations from elevated levels of air pollution, an understanding of spatial-temporal variance of air pollutant patterns is necessary. The study highlights the fact that Bangalore and other similar developing cities do not have an adequate number of fixed monitoring stations that could provide a complete coverage of the air pollution levels for the entire city. It is suggested that this can be overcome by using geospatial interpolation techniques that provide a complete coverage of the levels of pollutants, as well as assist in mapping health characteristics of the population, in order to reach evidence-based decisions and target effective interventions.
Air pollution is increasingly becoming a global concern and is believed to be amongst the leading causes of death in the world today. Developing countries, with rapidly growing economies, are struggling between the focus on economic development and curbing air pollution emissions. Bangalore is one of India’s fastest growing metropolises and, although benefiting economically due to its rapid development, has a rapidly deteriorating environment. This paper provides a critical analysis of the air pollution trend in the city over the period 2005-2011 at 6 specific locations where measurements have been consistently recorded. It also discusses the potential health implications pertaining to exceeding levels of pollutants where these are applicable.
This study quantitatively analyzed the relation between acute exacerbations of asthma and related admissions to the hospital with the air pollution and the meteorological conditions during that time. Data regarding the daily hospital admissions in about 13 tertiary care centers in Bangalore, Karnataka and air pollutant levels and the meteorological conditions prevailing during each day over a year were collected from the Karnataka State pollution control board and meteorology departments, respectively. An average daily asthma admission of 4.84±2.91, with clear seasonal variation and autocorrelations between meteorological parameters and pollutants was observed. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that average temperature (p=0.005) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (p=0.034) were the two factors that were affecting the number of admissions. Quasi-poisson regression analysis using multi-pollutants and meteorological variables showed that particulate matter and NO2 had significant lag effect for up to 5 days (p<0.05) and rainfall for 1 day (p<0.001). In Bangalore city, levels of NO2 and particulate matter, temperature, rainfall, and season increase asthma exacerbations.
Rapid industrialization and urbanization of Bangalore has led to a rise in the levels of ambient air pollution. Studies show that exposure to ambient air pollution is detrimental to health. Auto‑rickshaw drivers are highly susceptible to the effects of this pollution. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of decrease in lung function of non‑smoking auto‑rickshaw drivers exposed to outdoor air pollution with relation to normal predicted values.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the world’s number one cause of mortality. Research in recent years has begun to illustrate a significant association between CVD and air pollution. As most of these studies employed traditional statistics, cross-sectional or meta-analysis methods, a study undertaken by the authors was designed to investigate how a geographical information system (GIS) could be used to develop a more efficient spatio-temporal method of analysis than the currently existing methods mainly based on statistical inference. Using Bangalore, India, as a case study, demographic, environmental and CVD mortality data was sought from the city. However, critical deficiencies in the quality of the environmental data and mortality records were identified and quantified. This paper discusses the shortcomings in the quality of mortality data, together with the development of a framework based on WHO guidelines to improve the defects, henceforth considerably improving data quality.
The study investigated the associations between kerosene use and the likelihood of having respiratory symptoms or illness using multivariate logistic regression models. Among adult women, cooking with kerosene was associated with cough (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.99), bronchitis (OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.37), phlegm (OR=1.51; 95% CI 0.98 to 2.33) and chest illness (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.53), relative to cooking with LPG in the multivariate models. Among children, living in a household cooking with kerosene was associated with bronchitis (OR=1.91; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.13), phlegm (OR=2.020; 95% CI 1.29 to 3.74) and chest illness (OR=1.70; 95% CI 0.99 to 2.90) after adjusting for other covariates. We also found associations between kerosene use and wheezing, difficulty breathing and asthma in adults and cough and wheezing in children, though these associations were not statistically significant. Women and children in households cooking with kerosene were more likely to have respiratory symptoms and illnesses compared with those in households cooking with LPG. Transitioning from kerosene to LPG for cooking may improve respiratory health among adult women and children in this population.
This Paper has made an attempt to study on urban air pollution in Bangalore city by emission of gases by vehicles which emit from them. The present day environment crisis demands a change in attitude, which initiatives can be taken to rescue environment from destruction in the city of Bangalore. But the urban areas have a big share in the present day environmental problems from the automobiles throughout the world. This will finally focus on the attempt on the effects due to increase in the vehicle ratio in the city. Based on the facts and data obtained, the scenarios regarding future vehicle growth and their impact for travel is discussed to overcome emissions problems. The main objective is based on the emission of vehicles and their problems. In future vehicle-based emissions testing should be conducted for at least once in three months in Bangalore to gain a more accurate picture of the emissions that Occur from the specific vehicles in this city. The results posed by important issues on transport and facts of existing situation will be used for the recommendations.
Air quality indices are used for local and regional air quality management in many metro cities of the world. In the present study, air quality indices have been calculated using the US Environmental Protection Agency procedure to assess the status of ambient air quality near busy traffic intersections in Bangalore, India. The measured 24 h average criteria pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter for the period from 1997 to 2005 at three air quality monitoring stations are used for the development of AQIs. The result indicated that the air pollution at all the three air quality monitoring stations can be characterized as ‘good’ and ‘moderate’ for SO2 and NOx concentrations for all days from 1997 to 2004. Analysis of air quality indices values for both forms of suspended matter concentrations during 1999–2005 indicates 91% and 94% of the times days are in category ‘good’ and ‘moderate’. The yearly average air quality indices values of respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter concentrations indicated decreasing trend and are coming under the category of ‘good’ and ‘moderate’ form the category of ‘poor’ and ‘very poor’.
The present study indicates that particulate matter is the major air pollutant in the study area. In the entire study area, particulate pollutants exceeded the permissible standards, but gaseous pollutants were within the permissible limits. The industrial activities and transportation activities are mainly responsible for the high pollution load in the ambient air of the area. The present study further suggests that public awareness can play a major role in planning and developing innovative ways to solve health, transport and related air pollution problems and the strategic plan for their implementation.
A. CAST Study
Clean Air Asia has devised a tool to calculate how a city is with tackling the issue of air pollution. Bangalore is one of the 30 CAST study cities.
After taking into consideration all the aspects, the results have shown to be that the city is still in a developing stage to combat air pollution.
A. Way Forward
B. Tool Kit