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Bhopal

Air Quality Management Consultation in Bhopal

The Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation helped in supporting yet another successful consultation at the Bhopal smart city on 9th August 2018 in partnership with National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), Smart City Bhopal Limited, and Institute of Town Planners India (ITPI). The workshop was attended by various officials and authorities of the city, such as The Municipal Commissioner, Commissioner of Urban Development and Housing Department, CEO of Bhopal Smart City Limited and Chairman ITPI and Regional Director State Pollution Control Board. There was an inspiring exchange of dialogues on air pollution, health effects and communicating impacts, air quality management and clean air city certification by experts from NIUA, Clean Air Asia and Smart Cities Bhopal. The event also hosted academics from Center for Research on Environment and Sustainable Technologies (CREST) Bhopal and members of SARTHAK NGO.

Latest News

Bhopal Smart City Development Corporation Limited (BSCDCL) has requested Clean Air Asia to facilitate the development of a Clean Air Action Plan for the city.

Guidance Framework

Is a Framework prepared through a series of consultations by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Clean Air Asia was developed to provide guidance in implementing the long-term vision for urban air quality in Asia.

A. Air Action Plan

Air Action Plan are set of measures and initiatives that the State Governments and Departments along with the inclusion of NGOs and CSOs undertake to provide a clean and healthy environment to the citizens as envisaged in the Constitution of India.

The Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control has prepared an air action plan for the Non-attainment city of Bhopal

http://www.mppcb.mp.gov.in/

B. Monitoring Network of the city

 

Bhopal has 1 continuous air monitoring station at T.T.Nagar and 6 manual monitoring stations at

  1. Bairagarh
  2. Govindpura
  3. Kolar Road
  4. Hoshangabad Road
  5. Hamidia Road
  6. Arera Colony

 

The data regarding the Air Quality can be accessed through the Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board website

http://www.mppcb.nic.in/

They have a dedicated portal page for Air Quality Index of Bhopal

http://www.mppcb.nic.in/Diwali-2018.htm

The Pollution Control Board also has a portal for combined air quality data from the year 2018 onwards

http://xgn.mp.nic.in/File_Upload/fileviewtest.aspx

Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control also has district wise Air Quality Data

http://xgn.mp.nic.in/File_Upload/ViewReport.aspx

 

C. Government Policies, Acts, Laws, Press Release

  1. Central Act and Policies
  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, amended 1987,

It is the Principal Act enacted in pursuance of the Stockholm Declaration, 1972 for prevention, control, and abatement of Air Pollution. They were amended in 1987 giving the Pollution Control Boards more authority and power.

http://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/No_14_1981.pdf

 

  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1982

Rules were enacted to support the Principal Act in better management and control of Air Pollution

http://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/GSR_712E.pdf

 

  1. State Acts and Policies.
  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Madhya Pradesh Rules, 1983

Most states formulated Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules which deal with meetings of the Board and its committees, power and duties of the Member-Secretary and appointment of employees, power and functions of the Board, the State Air Laboratory, the procedure to deal with appeals and the budget.

http://www.bareactslive.com/MP/MP053.HTM

  • Under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, The State Government of Madhya Pradesh declared the whole State of Madhya Pradesh as Pollution Control Area.

http://www.mppcb.nic.in/proc/MP%20RAJPATRA-9%20MARCH%201988.pdf

 

D. State and National Set Standards

  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 2009.

Ambient air quality refers to the condition or quality of air surrounding us in the outdoors. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are the standards for ambient air quality set by Central Pollution Control board (CPCB) that is applicable nationwide. The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.

http://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Recved_national.pdf

A. Source Apportionment Study 

  • Source Apportionment of fine particulate matter over a National Park in Central India, Science of the Total Environment, Volume 720, June 2020 – Samresh Kumar and Ramya Sunder Raman

This paper analyses the PM2.5 mass and chemical constituents over Van Vihar National Park (VVNP), a forested location within Bhopal. A combination of source profiles, temporal evolution and potential source locations were used to identify these factors.

The outcomes of this analyses is expected to strengthen the air quality management plans for both VVNP and the city. Further, it is hoped that the results of this study will provide inputs to validate emissions inventories as well as climate model outputs over the region.

 

  • PM10 and PM5 chemical source profiles with optical attenuation and health risk indicators of paved and unpaved road dust in Bhopal, India, Environmental Pollution, Volume 222, March 2017 – Shilpi Samiksha, Ramya Sunder Raman, Jayant Nirmalkar, Samresh Kumar and Rohit Sirvaiya

The paper highlights the source profiles, optical attenuation, and potential health risk from exposure to these sources. Road dust was enriched (compared to upper continental crustal abundance) in anthropogenic pollutants including Sb, Cu, Zn, Co, and Pb. Organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions were 50–75% higher in paved road dust compared to their counterparts in unpaved road dust.  The estimates of potential lifetime incremental cancer risk induced by the inhalation of Cr in paved and unpaved road dust (PM10 and PM2.5) for both adults and children were higher than the baseline values of acceptable risk. These results suggest that road dust Cr induced carcinogenic risk should be further investigated.

 

  • Urban Emission led by Sarath Guttikunda have conducted a study on the source apportionment of the air pollutants in Bhopal City in 2017 under their program Air Pollution Knowledge Assessment City Program

In the 2017, there were 5 manual air monitoring stations in Bhopal and no continuous air monitoring stations. The study suggested that there is a need of atleast 18 Continous Air Monitoring Systems. The study also showed that the major contributor to city’s PM2.5 concentration is from the outside urban airshed which is almost 41.8%, followed by vehicular emission at 14.1%. The study also has certain finding and recommendations which could help in combat the air pollution

https://urbanemissions.info/wp-content/uploads/apna/docs/india_apna_2017_bhopal.pdf

B. Pervious Year Trend

  • Bhopal Air Quality Trend from year 2014- 2018, CERCA, IIT Delhi

https://cerca.iitd.ac.in/app/assets/cities-plan-pdf/MP/Bhopal.pdf

A. City-specific studies

  • Recent Status of Ambient Air Quality of Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh, India, International Journal of Research and Review, November 2019 – Reeta Kori, Alok Saxena, Nisha Upadhyay, Prem Kumar Shrivastava, Ankita Kulshreshta, Shubajeet Aich Roy, Saket Mishra and Poonam Dubey. The study was conducted during the year 2017 to 2018, in the city of Bhopal. 18 locations were selected in Bhopal city for ambient air quality monitoring.

The study revealed that average concentration average concentration of gaseous pollutants in ambient air are well within standard limits at all selected locations however particulate matter level were found exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 2009 at all monitoring locations.

http://www.ijrrjournal.org/

 

  • Respiratory Morbidity of roadside shopkeepers exposed to Traffic related Air pollution in Bhopal, India, Journal of Health and Pollution, March 2019 – Sajal De, Gagan Deep Singh, Dharmendra Dharwey and Devika Shanmu

The study shows that the Traffic related air pollution (TRAP) is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas. Shopkeepers of heavily trafficked roadside shops are persistently exposed to high levels of TRAP. The objective of the study was to eliminate the prevalence of respiratory morbidity in shopkeepers of shops in heavily trafficked roadside areas in Bhopal city (India) and to determine any association with long term exposure to TRAP.

https://www.researchgate.net/

 

  • Air Quality Index of Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh, India, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Protection, March 2019 – Achyut Anand Mishra, Reeta Kori, Alok Saxena, Nisha Upadhyay, Prem Kumar Shrivastava, Ankita Kulshreshtha, Saket Mishra and Smriti Sen

The paper studies the trend of Air Quality in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Air Quality Index found poor category (207.82-241.92) at three locations, moderate air category (105.62-193.07) twelve locations and satisfactory category (78-97) at three locations. Overall average ambient Air Quality Index of Bhopal city was observed moderate during this study of year 2016-17. The relative AQI was found in moderate air pollution range. It may cause serious aggravation of heart or lung disease, it is indication of increased risk of cardio respiratory symptoms in general population in Bhopal city of Madhya Pradesh, India.

http://www.openscienceonline.com/journal/archive2?journalId=714&paperId=5057

 

  • Assessment of ambient air quality status and air quality index of Bhopal City (Madhya Pradesh), India, International Journal of Current Science, October 2013 – Sadhana Chaurasia, Pragya Dwivedi, Ravindra Singh and anand Dev Gupta

Click here to read complete report

The paper presents ambient air quality status of industrial, commercial and residential area of Bhopal city (M.P.). The Air quality was assessed based on New National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The outcome of the study has been presented in the form of Air Quality Index. The ambient air quality survey was carried out in February and March, 2012. Sampling time was 24 hrs. at three different locations with respect to SO2 , NOx, PM10 and PM2.5. PM10 and PM2.5 was always found beyond the permissible limit at all the sampling site. The relative AQI was found in severe air pollution range. Significant positive correlation was found for all the parameter during study period. The study found that a ir pollution and air quality was measured at Bhopal city indicates that PM10 and PM2.5 always found beyond the permissible limit but SO2 and NOx were always below the permissible limit at all the sampling site in both the months. The relative AQI was found in severe air pollution range. It may cause serious aggravation of heart or lung disease, it is indication of increased risk of cardio respiratory symptoms in general population.

B. News articles

  • Bhopal: MP’s eight districts very highly vulnerable to respiratory illness, September 8th 2020, The Free Press Journal

https://www.freepressjournal.in/bhopal/madhya-pradesh-bhopal-people-use-849-percent-of-clean-fuel-says-unicef-survey

 

  • Lockdown gives Bhopal lungs a breather, August 5th 2020, The Times of India

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/lockdown-gives-bhopal-lungs-a-breather/articleshow/77365529.cms

  • Lockdown proves to be a blessing in disguise for MP’s environment, June 6th 2020, The Times of India

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/lockdown-proves-to-be-a-blessing-in-disguise-for-mps-environment/articleshow/76224728.cms

  • Air Pollution ends in Bhopal and all over the State, March 30th 2020, NewsTrack

https://english.newstracklive.com/news/for-the-first-time-air-pollution-ends-in-bhopal-and-all-over-the-state-mc23-nu910-1080945-1.html

 

  • Madhya Pradesh breathes easy as air pollution levels go down, 28th March, 2020, The Times of India

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/mp-breathes-easy-as-air-pollution-levels-go-down/articleshow/74854524.cms

 

  • Bhopal’s AQI shoots to highest level in 14 days, 23rd March 2020, The Times of India

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/bhopals-aqi-shoots-to-highest-level-in-14-days/articleshow/74764789.cms

 

  • When will Bhopal enjoy a walk in the park again? February 18th 2020, Citizen Matters

https://citizenmatters.in/bhopal-restoration-of-neglected-parks-15882

 

  • Bhopal: Concerned CM formulates plan to control pollution, October 23rd 2019, Free Press Journal

https://www.freepressjournal.in/bhopal/bhopal-concerned-cm-formulates-plan-to-control-pollution

 

  • Apportionment study to find source of pollution: MPPCB, November 9th 2016, The Times of India

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/Apportionment-study-to-find-source-of-pollution/articleshow/55340293.cms

A. Communication Portal for local government (e – governance) – Complain Redressal portals.

  • The Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board has a Emergency Response System Portal, where one can register grievances with the Pollution Control Board.

https://erc.mp.gov.in/Enquiry.aspx

A. CAST Study – 30 City survey done by Clean Air Asia. CAST is the tool used to perform the survey.

B. Technical Knowledge Sharing

A. Way Forward 

B. Tool Kit 

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