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Dehradun

Clean Air Scorecard Air Quality Management Assessment

Clean Air Asia developed a comprehensive analysis tool for understanding the air quality management status in cities – the Clean Air Scorecard tool (CAST). CAST is an excel-based tool which incorporates three indices: (i) Air Pollution and Health, (ii) Clean Air Management Capacity, and (iii) Clean Air Policies and Actions, which taken together give the AQM status of a city.

Results

  • Air Pollution and Health Index: Moderate
  • City Air Management Capacity: Limited
  • Clean Air Policies and actions: Moderate
  • Overall Score: Developing

Bridging the Knowledge Gap on Air Quality Management in Indian Cities. City Consultation for Dehradun City. (11th April 2018)

Clean Air Asia organized a one-day city consultation for Dehradun city on Air Quality Management. The consultation was organised in partnership with the Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board (UEPPCB) and Gati Foundation. The consultation was organised for officials from different sectors in Dehradun and supported by the Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation. Technical panels were organized around the themes of governance,  air quality management an policy ; and monitoring, health, technology and outreach to improve air quality management for Dehradun city. The consultation was attended by officials from the municipal corporation, UEPPCB, Mussorie & Dehradun Development Authority (MDDA), regional transport office, forest department, technical institutions and civil society.

Capacity Building for Air Action Plan. Round Table Discussion. Dehradun City. (12th April 2018)

Clean Air Asia organised a one day round table discussion for the preparation of an air action plan for the city of Dehradun. The discussion was organised in partnership with Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board (UEPPCB) and Gati Foundation. The discussion was chaired by the member-secretary, UEPPCB and the Mr. S.A. Murugesan, IAS, District Magistrate, Dehradun. The discussion brought out the process that is needed for the development of an air action plan for the city of Dehradun and policy measures already in place at the city level

Latest News

  • After the success of the air quality management consultation for the city of Dehradun, Clean Air Asia-India continues to work with the Uttarakhand Environment Protection Pollution Control Board (UEPPCB). As a part of this alliance,the atoms sensors manufactured by India based team Urban Sciences have been installed across the city. The sensors monitor particulate matter data (PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1) and mark the establishment of continuous monitoring devices in Dehradun which will further help in issuing health advisories to the denizens of the city.
  • In collaboration with the Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board (UEPPCB), Clean Air Asia has developed a Clean Air Action Plan for the city of Dehradun.

Guidance Framework

Is a Framework prepared through a series of consultations by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Clean Air Asia was developed to provide guidance in implementing the long-term vision for urban air quality in Asia.

A. Air Action Plan

  • Report on Action Plan for Air Quality Improvement of Dehradun City sponsored by Uttrakhand Environment Protection Pollution Control Board, Dehradun along with Pollution Control Research Institute, BHEL, Haridwar.

Air Action Plan are set of measures and initiatives that the State Governments and Departments along with the inclusion of NGOs and CSOs undertake to provide a clean and healthy environment to the citizens as envisaged in the Constitution of India.

Key Recommendations, Observations and Action Plan

  1. Formulation of District Health Action Plan to bridge the gaps in the public health care delivery system.
  2. Preparing a concrete Action Plan for management of Municipal Solid Waste.
  3. Preparation and Implementation of State Action Plans on Climate Change.
  4. Introduction of clean and green public transports such electrical buses, e-rickshaws etc. and cleaner fuel.
  5. Installation of Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Systems.
  6. Robust Plan to tackle Road Dust, Construction Dust and Waste Burning.
  7. Initiatives for making the city more citizen friendly, increasing tree covers, construction of pedestrian walks, more green and open spaces, providing internet to all.
  8. Developing a Smart City Concept.

https://ueppcb.uk.gov.in/files/Air_Action_Plan_of_Dehradun_City_Prepared_by_PCRI.pdf

 

 

  • Smart Cities Mission – Dehradun Proposal

 

Under the Government of India Smart City Mission, Dehradun is one of 100 cities which has been chosen. In the approach of the Smart Cities Mission, the objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and decent quality life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment. The focus is on sustainable and inclusive development and the idea is to look at compact areas to make them more citizen friendly and self-sustainable.

 

Key Initiatives under the Smart City Model

  1. Installing Interactive Bus Stops which will be provided with wi-fi hotspots, solar power lighting, emergency call buttons, information about bus routes, scheduled likely arrival of next bus etc.
  2. Automation Service of Mussoorie Dehradun Development Authority (MDDA) which will facilitate the citizens of Dehradun with faster execution, quicker response time and less touch points so that the applicant does not get tangled with intricate office details. The procedure would be largely online.
  3. Promotion and introduction of Electrical Buses.
  4. Citizen Outreach Program to get more engagements from the citizens, which would be promoted through virtual interactions, dialogues, and discussions.
  5. Doon Integrated Command and Control Centre, which will enable real time data capture through sensors and other devices for various purposes like security surveillance, traffic management, environmental sensors etc. ( Integrated Command and Control Centre inaugurated in Doon https://www.dailypioneer.com/2019/state-editions/integrated-command-and-control-centre-inaugurated-in-doon.html)
  6. Installation of Smart Poles, these smart poles would be equipped with Wi -Fi access points, smart lighting solutions and CCTV Cameras, digital bill board for advertisement and all smart component which will be integrated with Command and Control Centre for management and better monitoring. ( Doon to get 60 smart poles and 70 smart towers https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/dehradun/doon-to-get-60-smart-poles-and-70-smart-towers/articleshow/73913511.cms)

 

http://smartcities.gov.in/upload/uploadfiles/files/Annexures_Dehradun.pdf

http://smartcitydehradun.uk.gov.in/citizen-outreach-program

 

B. Monitoring Networks

  • Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board has installed three Manual Air Monitoring Stations at:
  1. Clock Tower
  2. Raipur Road
  • Himalayan Drug, ISBT

The data is regularly updated on the UEPPCB website (https://ueppcb.uk.gov.in/pages/display/95-air-quality-data)

  • UEPPCB has also proposed to install continuous ambient air quality monitoring stations (CAAQMS), as a part of their Clean Air Action Plan. They are steps being taken towards installation.

 https://ueppcb.uk.gov.in/files/tech_prebid_26117.pdf

 

C. Government Policies, Acts, Press Release, Laws

1. Central Acts

  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, amended 1987,

It is the Principal Act enacted in pursuance of the Stockholm Declaration, 1972 for prevention, control, and abatement of Air Pollution. They were amended in 1987 giving the Pollution Control Boards more authority and power.

http://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/No_14_1981.pdf

  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1982

Rules were enacted to support the Principal Act in better management and control of Air Pollution

http://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/GSR_712E.pdf

 

2. State Initiatives, Policies, Rules, And Acts

Acts/Rules

  • Uttar Pradesh Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1983 (adopted by Uttrakhand on its formation)

Most states formulated Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules which deal with meetings of the Board and its committees, power and duties of the Member-Secretary and appointment of employees, power and functions of the Board, the State Air Laboratory, the procedure to deal with appeals and the budget.

http://www.bareactslive.com/ALL/UP029.HTM

Initiative and Policies by the Government

  • The State Government is also taking steps towards green vehicles, by introduction of Electrical Buses, E – Rickshaws.

http://smartcitydehradun.uk.gov.in/uploads/tenders/2993814-nit-sp-eb-pb.pdf

C. State and National Set Standards

  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 2009.

Ambient air quality refers to the condition or quality of air surrounding us in the outdoors. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are the standards for ambient air quality set by Central Pollution Control board (CPCB) that is applicable nationwide. The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.

http://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Recved_national.pdf

A. Source Apportionment Study 

  • Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board has taken initiative to outsource the Source Apportionment Studies and Emission Inventory.

https://ueppcb.uk.gov.in/

https://ueppcb.uk.gov.in/

Organisation 

  • Urban Emission has done a study under their programme called Air Pollution Knowledge Assessment Programme for the city of Agra. The study showed that the city needs at least 23 Continuous Air Monitoring Station for a continuous look through on emission. The study also shows that 36% of the pollution is originating outside the urban airshed which suggests that there is a need for air pollution control policies in the Indo – Gangetic plains.  

 https://urbanemissions.info/india-apna/agra-india/

 

Papers on Source Apportionment

 

  • Seasonal and spatial variability of secondary inorganic aerosols in PM2.5 at Agra: Source apportionment through receptor models, March 2020, Chemosphere – Awni Agarwal, Aparna Satsangi, Anita Lakhani, K. Maharaj Kumari 

The study was conducted at sub-urban and rural site of Agra. The main aim  was to characterize Water Soluble Inorganic Ions (WSII) in terms of spatial, seasonal and formation characteristics and identify the major sources responsible for the pollution of WSII in PM2.5 particles using different source apportionment models. WSII showed slight variations in seasonal and spatial characteristics, the major sources of pollution were found to be similar. Four sources were identified as biomass burning (29.1% and 27.4%), secondary aerosols (26.2% and 22.5%), coal combustion (22.3% and 26.9%) and soil dust (22.4% and 23.1%) at sub-urban and rural sites. The results of case study showed that among different types of biomass fuels cow dung cakes showed maximum PM2.5 emissions while LPG showed minimum PM2.5 emissions.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0045653519323719

 

  • Trends Analysis of Ambient Air Pollutants in Agra City 2002 – 2013, September 2016/March 2017, Indian Journal of Air Pollution Control, Volume XVI, No.2 and Volume XVII, No.1 – Kamal Kumar, V.K.Shukla (Page 8 – Page 20) 

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kirti_Bhandari/publication/321025948_httpwwwiaapciniaapc_journalpdf/links/5a093cf9a6fdcc65eab55f6b/http-wwwiaapcin-iaapc-journalpdf.pdf 

 

  • Source Apportionment of Particle Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at an Industrial Location in Agra, India, April 2012, The Scientific World Journal – Anita Lakhani 

The study analyses the quantification of 16 US EPA priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in total suspended ambient particulate matter collected from an industrial site in Agra using gas chromatography. This study was conducted to apportion sources of PAH in the ambient air. The study reflects a blend of emission from diesel and natural gas as the major source of PAH in the city along with contribution from emission of coal, coke, and gasoline. 

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/781291/

 

B. Pervious Year Trend

  • UPPCB has updated the air quality data from 2015 to May 2020.

http://www.uppcb.com/ambient_quality.htm

A. City-specific studies

  • Estimation of Air Pollution Using Multi Temporal Remote Sensing Technique for Dehradun District, Uttarakhand – Jysotsana Joshi, Kishor Chandra Kandpal and Neelam Rawat, International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS, January 2019

This research focuses on air pollution determination using atmospheric reflectance and correlate to PM10 ground measurement. The primary assumption about air pollutant particle, the solar irradiance, did not reach earth surface, so the solar irradiance interacts to atmospheric pollutant. Thus, the atmospheric reflectance directly correlates to ground PM10 measurements.

The major urban area of Dehradun district is Doon Valley and the highest PM10 concentration is found within Doon Valley and is constantly increasing.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1mjvQ8jwNKjTs_TxZ72v6Tz8PFC1xiru4/view

  • Investigation of the source, morphology, and trace elements associated with atmospheric PM10 and human health risks due to inhalation of carcinogenic elements at Dehradun, an Indo – Himalayan City – Vignesh Prabhu, Vijay Shridhar and Arti Choudhary, April 2019

Over the years many epidemiological studies have been conducted on finding the association between air pollution and human mortality. However, information of the atmospheric PM associated elemental composition is scarcely available over complex terrain.

This study focuses on filling the substantial knowledge gap, thereby aiding in understanding the aerosol dynamics over urban cities situated in valley based complex topography. The main objective was to estimate the mass concentration of PM10 along with its morphology, source and health risks of atmospheric PM10.  

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42452-019-0460-1

  • Exposure to Atmospheric Particulates and Associated Respirable Deposition Dose to Street Vendors at the Residential and Commercial Sites in Dehradun City – Vignesh Prabhu, Sunil K. Gupta, Sandeep Madhwal and Vijay Shridhar, June 2019

The study focuses on the impact of atmospheric particles and associated respirable deposition dose on the street vendors for the incidence of respiratory related disorders among them.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6598844/

  • Analysis of air pollutants in Rishikesh and Dehradun City of Uttarakhand: Influence of surface Meteorological Parameters – Amar Deep, Chhavi P. Pandey, Hemwati Nandan and K.D. Purohit, September 2019

The study analyses some of the air quality parameters of Dehradun and Rishikesh in Uttarakhand. The study found that gaseous pollutants were found to be below the Annual Average Standards, as stipulated by NAAQS whereas PM10 was substantially higher. The high concentration of particulate matter was high during the winter and post-monsoon seasons.

http://jebsharidwar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Analysis-of-air-pollutants-in-Rishikesh-and-Dehradun-Uttarakhand.pdf

  • Atmospheric Aerosols and Inhalable Particle Number Count During Diwali in Dehradun – Vignesh Prabhu, Jai Prakash, Ashish Soni, Sandeep Madhwal, Vijay Shridhar, City and Environment Interaction, November 2019

The study shows the effect of fireworks during the period of Diwali on the short-term elevation of aerosols and associated particle deposition on human respiratory tract. It tries to provide an insight into the number of particles inhalable due to the bursting of fireworks during Diwali. It also focuses on the variation of aerosol concentration in Dehradun.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590252019300066

  • Spatio – Temporal changes and impact of air pollution on human health: A case study of Dehradun City – Sharma, Mandakini; Pal, Brijesh; Pal, Anil and Bajpai, A.B., June 2017

Air quality status in Dehradun city revealed that SO2 and NOx concentrations were still under permissible limits but SPM and RSPM concentration are problematic. However, the SPM levels have shown a downward trend over the years, they are still above the prescribed limits at all the monitoring sites in Dehradun. Study reveals that after been designated as capital city the concentration of dust and particulate matter has adversely affected the human as well as plant life.

https://essence-journal.com/

  • Impact of Air Pollution on Health in Doon City, July 2015, A. Gautam, M. Mahajan, and S. Garg

The study focuses on the adverse health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution in different areas of Dehradun and the relationship between the levels of air pollution and the percentage of affected people in selected area of Dehradun City.

The study revealed that air pollution in Dehradun city is seriously affecting the health of the people especially in Clock Tower and Lakhi Bagh area which are most polluted by motor vehicular traffic. Eye diseases and acute respiratory illnesses correlate strongly with air pollution levels. Therefore, the city needs are serious makeover to reduce the traffic congestion in the commercial areas. 

https://peoplesscienceinstitute.org/research/Health-report.pdf

  • A Comparative Study for Air Pollution Tolerance Index of Some Terrestrial Plant Species – Rakesh Bhutiani and Bharti Tyagi, Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management Publication, September 2015

The study was conducted on Nagal Village, Sahastradhara and Clock Tower, Dehradun, to study the effect of air pollution on the plants.

Four physiological and biochemical parameters namely leaf relative water content, Ascorbic Acid Content. Total Leaf chlorophyll content and leaf extract pH were used to compute the air pollution tolerance index value on seven species of plants. The study concluded that Eucalyptus globus is the most tolerant species followed by Ficus Religiosa and hence these species can be grown in the city road sides as well as in industrial zones for controlling the effects of air pollution.

https://www.academia.edu

  • Ambient Air Quality Status in Uttarakhand (India): A Case Study of Haridwar And Dehradun Using Air Quality Index, Journal of American Science, January 2010 – Avnish Chauhan, Maynak Pawar, Rajeev Kumar and P. C. Joshi

The study examines the significant differences in seasonal variations of air pollutants concentrations at urban, industrial, commercial, and agricultural areas of Uttarakhand. PM 10 (RSPM), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO 2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) were collected over four sites in Haridwar and Dehradun Valley, Uttarakhand.

The study also focuses on the effect of industrialization, urbanization, and automobile emission on ambient air quality in Haridwar and Dehradun City. Meteorological parameters like temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall were also analysed.

https://www.researchgate.net/

  • Tree as bio indicator of Automobile Pollution in Dehradun city: A Case Study, New York Science Journal, April 2010 – Avnish Chauhan

The study focuses on the tree’s tolerance level to air pollution and the changes in their moisture content level, pH levels and Chlorophyll levels.

http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork/ny0306/13_2630_ny0306_88_95.pdf

  1. Newspaper Articles
  • Air Pollution down to near-zero level in Delhi, other urban centres: IIT – R study, The New Indian Express, April 2020,

https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/apr/27/air-pollution-down-to-near-zero-level-in-delhi-other-urban-centres-iit-r-study-2136056.html

  • Vanishing landscape of ‘smart city’ Dehradun, February 2020

https://india.mongabay.com/2020/02/vanishing-landscape-of-smart-city-dehradun/

  • In Dehradun, Modi’s promise of a ‘smart city’ remains unfulfilled amid crumbling infrastructure, February 2020

https://scroll.in/article/952335/in-dehradun-modis-promise-of-a-smart-city-remains-unfulfilled-amid-crumbling-infrastructure

  • Uttarakhand Pollution Board a failure: CAG audit Report, 10th December, 2019.

https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2019/dec/10/uttarakhand-pollution-board-a-failure-cag-audit-report-2074237.html

  • Depleting Forest Cover and Rising Air Pollution – November 2019

http://www.pioneeredge.in/depleting-forest-cover-rising-air-pollution/

  • Uttarakhand: Air Pollution leading to surge in eye allergies in Dehradun, October 25th, 2019

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/dehradun/air-pollution-leading-to-surge-in-eye-allergies-in-doon/articleshow/71746206.cms

  • Air Pollution reducing lifespan of people in Uttarakhand claims research, Uttarakhand News Network, October 2019

 https://uttarakhandnewsnetwork.com/2019/10/air-pollution-reducing-life-span-of-people-in-uttarakhand-claims-research/

  • Delhi and Haridwar to fight pollution (Hindi), October 2019

https://www.livehindustan.com/uttarakhand/story-dehradun-and-haridwar-cities-to-be-air-pollution-free-soon-2781169.html

  • Don’t pack your bags yet: Air in these smaller towns is worse than Delhi’s, New Study by IIT- Kanpur finds Patna, Varanasi and Kanpur to be worse polluted than Capital, February 2019

https://epaper.timesgroup.com/Olive/ODN/TimesOfIndia/shared/ShowArticle.aspx?doc=TOIDEL%2F2019%2F02%2F16&entity=Ar01107&sk=C01EBDF0&mode=text#

  • Increase in Pollution in Dehradun – It’s cause and effects, 30th May, 2018.

https://www.dooncircle.com/increase-in-pollution-in-dehradun-its-cause-effects/

  • Meet Anoop Nautiyal: The Man who left politics to fight for Environment in Uttarakhand, May 2018

https://thelogicalindian.com/story-feed/achievers/meet-anoop-nautiyal-the-man-who-left-politics-to-fight-for-environment-in-uttarakhand2/?infinitescroll=1

  • Dehradun to get hourly air quality monitoring stations, April 2018

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/dehradun/doon-to-get-hourly-air-quality-monitoring-stations/articleshow/63719415.cms

 

  • Choked Doon: A Painful Story of Dehradun’s Public Transport System, February 2018

https://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2018/02/choked-doon-painful-story-of-dehraduns-public-transport-system/

  • Delhi not alone, 25 other Indian cities have higher air pollution levels than Beijing: WHO, May 2014

https://www.financialexpress.com/archive/delhi-not-alone-25-other-indian-cities-have-higher-air-pollution-levels-than-beijing-who/1249240/

  1. Communication Portal for local government (e – governance)
  • Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board has set up an Air Pollution Complain Redressal System – https://ncaputtarakhand.in/

A. CAST Study 

B. Technical Knowledge Sharing

A. Way Forward 

B. Tool Kit 

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