Clean Air Asia developed a comprehensive analysis tool for understanding the air quality management status in cities – the Clean Air Scorecard tool (CAST). CAST is an excel-based tool which incorporates three indices: (i) Air Pollution and Health, (ii) Clean Air Management Capacity, and (iii) Clean Air Policies and Actions, which taken together give the AQM status of a city.
Clean Air Asia organized a one-day city consultation for Dehradun city on Air Quality Management. The consultation was organised in partnership with the Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board (UEPPCB) and Gati Foundation. The consultation was organised for officials from different sectors in Dehradun and supported by the Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation. Technical panels were organized around the themes of governance, air quality management an policy ; and monitoring, health, technology and outreach to improve air quality management for Dehradun city. The consultation was attended by officials from the municipal corporation, UEPPCB, Mussorie & Dehradun Development Authority (MDDA), regional transport office, forest department, technical institutions and civil society.
Clean Air Asia organised a one day round table discussion for the preparation of an air action plan for the city of Dehradun. The discussion was organised in partnership with Uttarakhand Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board (UEPPCB) and Gati Foundation. The discussion was chaired by the member-secretary, UEPPCB and the Mr. S.A. Murugesan, IAS, District Magistrate, Dehradun. The discussion brought out the process that is needed for the development of an air action plan for the city of Dehradun and policy measures already in place at the city level
A. Air Action Plan
Air Action Plan are set of measures and initiatives that the State Governments and Departments along with the inclusion of NGOs and CSOs undertake to provide a clean and healthy environment to the citizens as envisaged in the Constitution of India.
Key Recommendations, Observations and Action Plan
Under the Government of India Smart City Mission, Dehradun is one of 100 cities which has been chosen. In the approach of the Smart Cities Mission, the objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and decent quality life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment. The focus is on sustainable and inclusive development and the idea is to look at compact areas to make them more citizen friendly and self-sustainable.
Key Initiatives under the Smart City Model
B. Monitoring Networks
The data is regularly updated on the UEPPCB website (https://ueppcb.uk.gov.in/pages/display/95-air-quality-data)
C. Government Policies, Acts, Press Release, Laws
1. Central Acts
It is the Principal Act enacted in pursuance of the Stockholm Declaration, 1972 for prevention, control, and abatement of Air Pollution. They were amended in 1987 giving the Pollution Control Boards more authority and power.
Rules were enacted to support the Principal Act in better management and control of Air Pollution
2. State Initiatives, Policies, Rules, And Acts
Most states formulated Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules which deal with meetings of the Board and its committees, power and duties of the Member-Secretary and appointment of employees, power and functions of the Board, the State Air Laboratory, the procedure to deal with appeals and the budget.
Initiative and Policies by the Government
C. State and National Set Standards
Ambient air quality refers to the condition or quality of air surrounding us in the outdoors. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are the standards for ambient air quality set by Central Pollution Control board (CPCB) that is applicable nationwide. The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
Papers on Source Apportionment
The study was conducted at sub-urban and rural site of Agra. The main aim was to characterize Water Soluble Inorganic Ions (WSII) in terms of spatial, seasonal and formation characteristics and identify the major sources responsible for the pollution of WSII in PM2.5 particles using different source apportionment models. WSII showed slight variations in seasonal and spatial characteristics, the major sources of pollution were found to be similar. Four sources were identified as biomass burning (29.1% and 27.4%), secondary aerosols (26.2% and 22.5%), coal combustion (22.3% and 26.9%) and soil dust (22.4% and 23.1%) at sub-urban and rural sites. The results of case study showed that among different types of biomass fuels cow dung cakes showed maximum PM2.5 emissions while LPG showed minimum PM2.5 emissions.
The study analyses the quantification of 16 US EPA priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in total suspended ambient particulate matter collected from an industrial site in Agra using gas chromatography. This study was conducted to apportion sources of PAH in the ambient air. The study reflects a blend of emission from diesel and natural gas as the major source of PAH in the city along with contribution from emission of coal, coke, and gasoline.
B. Pervious Year Trend
A. City-specific studies
This research focuses on air pollution determination using atmospheric reflectance and correlate to PM10 ground measurement. The primary assumption about air pollutant particle, the solar irradiance, did not reach earth surface, so the solar irradiance interacts to atmospheric pollutant. Thus, the atmospheric reflectance directly correlates to ground PM10 measurements.
The major urban area of Dehradun district is Doon Valley and the highest PM10 concentration is found within Doon Valley and is constantly increasing.
Over the years many epidemiological studies have been conducted on finding the association between air pollution and human mortality. However, information of the atmospheric PM associated elemental composition is scarcely available over complex terrain.
This study focuses on filling the substantial knowledge gap, thereby aiding in understanding the aerosol dynamics over urban cities situated in valley based complex topography. The main objective was to estimate the mass concentration of PM10 along with its morphology, source and health risks of atmospheric PM10.
The study focuses on the impact of atmospheric particles and associated respirable deposition dose on the street vendors for the incidence of respiratory related disorders among them.
The study analyses some of the air quality parameters of Dehradun and Rishikesh in Uttarakhand. The study found that gaseous pollutants were found to be below the Annual Average Standards, as stipulated by NAAQS whereas PM10 was substantially higher. The high concentration of particulate matter was high during the winter and post-monsoon seasons.
The study shows the effect of fireworks during the period of Diwali on the short-term elevation of aerosols and associated particle deposition on human respiratory tract. It tries to provide an insight into the number of particles inhalable due to the bursting of fireworks during Diwali. It also focuses on the variation of aerosol concentration in Dehradun.
Air quality status in Dehradun city revealed that SO2 and NOx concentrations were still under permissible limits but SPM and RSPM concentration are problematic. However, the SPM levels have shown a downward trend over the years, they are still above the prescribed limits at all the monitoring sites in Dehradun. Study reveals that after been designated as capital city the concentration of dust and particulate matter has adversely affected the human as well as plant life.
The study focuses on the adverse health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution in different areas of Dehradun and the relationship between the levels of air pollution and the percentage of affected people in selected area of Dehradun City.
The study revealed that air pollution in Dehradun city is seriously affecting the health of the people especially in Clock Tower and Lakhi Bagh area which are most polluted by motor vehicular traffic. Eye diseases and acute respiratory illnesses correlate strongly with air pollution levels. Therefore, the city needs are serious makeover to reduce the traffic congestion in the commercial areas.
The study was conducted on Nagal Village, Sahastradhara and Clock Tower, Dehradun, to study the effect of air pollution on the plants.
Four physiological and biochemical parameters namely leaf relative water content, Ascorbic Acid Content. Total Leaf chlorophyll content and leaf extract pH were used to compute the air pollution tolerance index value on seven species of plants. The study concluded that Eucalyptus globus is the most tolerant species followed by Ficus Religiosa and hence these species can be grown in the city road sides as well as in industrial zones for controlling the effects of air pollution.
The study examines the significant differences in seasonal variations of air pollutants concentrations at urban, industrial, commercial, and agricultural areas of Uttarakhand. PM 10 (RSPM), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO 2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) were collected over four sites in Haridwar and Dehradun Valley, Uttarakhand.
The study also focuses on the effect of industrialization, urbanization, and automobile emission on ambient air quality in Haridwar and Dehradun City. Meteorological parameters like temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall were also analysed.
The study focuses on the tree’s tolerance level to air pollution and the changes in their moisture content level, pH levels and Chlorophyll levels.
A. CAST Study
B. Technical Knowledge Sharing
A. Way Forward
B. Tool Kit