A. Air Action Plan
Air Action Plan are set of measures and initiatives that the State Governments and Departments along with the inclusion of NGOs and CSOs undertake to provide a clean and healthy environment to the citizens as envisaged in the Constitution of India.
The Kanpur City Action Plan has laid down short- term and long-term plans for tackling pollution in the city. Under various had such as tackling vehicle emission, industrial pollution there mix of short – term and long – term plans. They are plans to mitigate resuspension of dust, road design improvement, burning of open waste, construction, and demolition activities etc.
Kanpur has devised a Smart City Plan, which includes Area Development and Pan Development Project.
A. Source Apportionment Study
This study addresses the three major questions: (1) what are the emission sources of PM1 which are affecting the study area; (2) where do these emission sources come from; and (3) is there any temporal variation in the emission sources. To address these issues, two advanced statistical methods are described in this paper. Identification of emission sources was performed by EPA PMF (v 5.0) and to understand the temporal variability, sampling was done for three winter seasons 2008–09, 2009–10 and 2011–12 within Kanpur city. To identify the possible source directions, Conditional Bivariate Probability function (CBPF) was used. The average PM1 concentration was higher in 2008–09 followed by 2011–12 and 2009–10 winter seasons. 2008–09 winter showed sources such as secondary sources mixed with power plant emission (42.8%), industrial emission (32.3%), coal combustion, brick kilns and vehicular emission (13.2%) and residual oil combustion and road dust (11.7%). The major contributors during winter season 2009–10 were secondary sources (33.1%), biomass burning (23.3%), heavy oil combustion (13%), vehicular emission mixed with crustal dust (11.3%), leather tanning industries (10.3%), industrial emission (4%), coal combustion and brick kilns (3.4%) and solid waste burning and incineration (1.5%) compared to secondary sources mixed with biomass burning (42.3%), industrial emission and crustal dust (35.1%) and vehicular emission and brick kilns (22.6%) during 2011–12 winter season. PMF model revealed that secondary sources were the main contributors for all the three winter seasons followed by biomass burning and power plant emission. The results of CBPF analysis agreed well with the locations of known local point sources., e.g. in the case of industrial emissions, the maximum probability was in the direction between NES direction where almost all the major industries are located in and around Kanpur while in the opposite direction the probability of biomass burning was high due to a rural area in NWS direction.
The paper analyses the concentration of PM2.5 in two India large cities of Uttar Pradesh, i.e. Agra and Kanpur. Both the cities have high PM2.5 concentrations. Previous studies of air quality in Agra have reported concentrations of 116 μg/m3 in winter, and 80 μg/m3 as the annual average. Studies in Kanpur have documented PM2.5 concentrations of 163 μg/m3 in wintertime.
The objective of this study is to identify the sources of PM2.5 in Agra and Kanpur and to quantify their contribution to fine particulate matter concentrations. To achieve this goal, a chemical characterization of particles was done, and organic compound concentrations were used in the CMB model to estimate the source apportionment to PM2.5.
The result for the city of Kanpur is shown that the primary contributor for organic compound was burning of biomass It contributed from 5.5±1.1 μg/m3 in December to 0.2±0.0 μg/m3 in September. Biomass burning apportionment to OC in Kanpur was about half of that in Agra. Smoking vehicle had higher contributions in summer than in winter and monsoon season.
Increasing anthropogenic emissions, arising due to development in urban and rural areas, it has been widely realized to assess the atmospheric impact of various sources. In this context, the study investigates the source contribution of ambient fine-mode aerosols (PM1; n = 51) during wintertime (mid of November 2009 to February 2010) over Kanpur site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). PM1 mass concentration centers at 113 µg m-3 . The high loading of fine-mode aerosols is attributable to source strength and shallower planetary boundary layer. In PM1 a total of 20 chemical constituents have been measured that include trace metals (Pb, Cd, Se, V, Cr), major elements (Fe, Mg, Ca, Na and K) and water-soluble inorganic species (NH4+ , NO3 -, Cl- and SO4 2-). A recent version of positive matrix factorization (PMF 5.0) was utilized to quantify the contribution of fine-mode aerosols from various sources. This study reveals that nearly 80% of the fine-mode aerosols over Kanpur region are contributed by fossil-fuel sources that include point and mobile sources (vehicular and industrial emissions). However, the contribution from biomass burning emission is about 20%. One of the most interesting features of our study relates to the observation that secondary sources (contributing 40% of PM1 loading) are predominantly formed from vehicular emission sources (fossil-fuel combustion). Thus, the study highlights the high concentration of PM1 loading and atmospheric fog prevalent during wintertime in the IGP can have severe impact over the human health.
PM1 (particles having aerodynamic diameter < 1.0 µm) concentrations were measured at a sampling site inside the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur campus for 11 months from July, 2008–May, 2009. The sampling was carried out for all the major seasons of India and a total of 90 samples were collected. The chemical speciation data in terms of element and anion concentrations of all the collected samples were closely studied for any seasonal phenomena and different source contributions to PM1 mass. Average PM1 concentration was found to be highest (199 µg/m3) during winter and lowest (31 µg/m3) during monsoon season. Concentrations of different elements and anions also followed similar trend as PM1 concentration. Nitrate and sulfate were the two most predominant anionic species contributing to almost 80%–90% of total anionic concentrations. Crustal elements (Ca, Mg, and Fe) were the main contributors within the total elemental concentrations. Overall, it was found that anions contributed up to 35% of the total PM1 mass. Factor Analysis of chemical speciation data and UNMIX (Version 6) revealed that secondary sources and vehicular emissions were the two main sources contributing to PM1 mass with minor contributions from paved road dust and coal combustion sources.
Atmospheric particle characteristics and concentrations are critical in source apportionment analysis. Particulate matter (PM) levels (in Indian conditions) suggest significant seasonal variability. There could be several reasons for this variability, including the variable meteorology, wind-driven dust, and atmospheric chemistry, which is responsible for formation of secondary particles. To clearly establish the cause–effect relationship of particulate levels and sources, PM10 (n = 100) samples were collected at Kanpur, India, during 2000 to 2001. The collected samples were analyzed for metals and water-soluble ions, and results were utilized for factor analysis and source apportionment estimations with specific focus on secondary particles of fine mode. In the three seasons studied, two important PM10 sources were soil-road dust (15–47%) and inorganic secondary particles like (NH4) 2SO4 and NH4NO3 (21–26%). Winter and monsoon conditions were conductive for formation of secondary particles due to moderate temperatures and high relative humidity. The role of ambient ammonia was vital in overall atmospheric chemistry of secondary particulate formation. It is thus clear that control of PM will require control of primary precursor gases like SO2 and NOx, including NH3.
This research was initiated to study the air quality in the city of Kanpur, India in terms of PM10 and PM2.5 and chemical composition in terms of heavy metals and benzene-soluble organic fraction (BSOF) for PM10. Three sampling locations, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) (control site), Vikas Nagar (VN) (commercial site) and Juhi Colony (JC) (residential site) were selected. Total forty-seven 24-h samples were collected for PM2.5 and PM10 during October 2002–February 2003 at these locations. The collected PM10 samples were subjected to chemical analysis for determination of heavy metals and toxic organic fraction by measuring BSOF. PM10 (45–589 μg m−3), PM2.5 (25–200 μg m−3), BSOF (1–170 μg m−3) and heavy metals were highest at VN followed by JC and IIT. The study concluded that the overall air quality in the city of Kanpur was much inferior to other cities in India and abroad. Similar to PM10 and PM2.5, heavy metals were almost 5–10 times higher than levels in European cities. The study concluded that there was a need to address the issue of PM2.5 monitoring and control. Because regular PM2.5 monitoring may take some time, a linear model for predicting PM2.5 using routinely monitored parameters PM10 and BSOF was suggested for preliminary assessment. The model was checked for its adequacy and it was validated.
A. City-specific studies
Rapid industrialization and urbanization are paving a way for emerging economies to become more advanced, but these activities also trigger environmental problems. Among many of these problems, the biggest and the most persistent is the air pollution. According to the WHO database, Indian cities are leading the list of world’s most polluted cities, with 14 of the 15 cities featuring in the list are Indians, which has been declared badly affected due to air pollution, and the worst among them is Kanpur. Years of studies and research have recognized the industrial sector as mainly responsible for polluting the city. As reported by Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, during winter months, the major contributor to air pollution is particulate matter like dust and soot accounting for around 76%, 15% has been contributed by biomass burning and about 8% by emissions from vehicle, whereas, in summer season, the percentage contribution of particulate matter came down to 35% with equal contribution from vehicular emissions. Meteorological data reveals that 20–80% part of the day mostly during winter months, the average wind speed remains between 2 and 4 m/s. This shows that the dispersion of pollutants in the winter season is very less, trapping particulates and toxic metals in the atmosphere to remain persistent for months. The exposure to these pollutants resulted in harmful diseases linked to the cardiovascular system, respiratory systems, nervous system, premature birth, mortality, and illness. Various efforts have been initiated by the authorities to control the increasing level of pollution, like constructing new roads and pavements, mass rapid transit service to cut car pollution, planting more trees and promoting battery-operated transport. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change is also making a budgetary allocation of about 7 billion rupees ($104 million) for installing more systems to monitor air quality in cities and installing equipment to settle the dust like water sprinklers. Despite all these efforts, the Air Quality Index of the city has remained much below the national average. In this scenario, this paper focuses on the studies made so far associated with the causes, sources, impacts, and outcomes related to air pollution levels in the city from the available literature. This paper has also highlighted the air pollution scenario of neighboring country China and its policies intervention in battling against a similar situation.
The study present long-term measurements of sub-micron particle number size distributions (PNSDs) conducted at an urban location, Kanpur, in India, from September 2007 to July 2011. The mean Aitken mode (NAIT), accumulation mode (NACCU), the total particle (NTOT), and black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were 12.4 × 103 cm− 3, 18.9 × 103 cm− 3, 31.9 × 103 cm− 3, and 7.96 μg m− 3, respectively, within the observed range at other urban locations worldwide, but much higher than those reported at urban sites in the developed nations. The total particle volume concentration appears to be dominated mainly by the accumulation mode particles, except during the monsoon months, perhaps due to efficient wet deposition of accumulation mode particles by precipitation. At Kanpur, the diurnal variation of particle number concentrations was very distinct, with highest during morning and late evening hours, and lowest during the afternoon hours. This behavior could be attributed to the large primary emissions of aerosol particles and temporal evolution of the planetary boundary layer. A distinct seasonal variation in the total particle number and BC mass concentrations was observed, with the maximum in winter and minimum during the rainy season, however, the Aitken mode particles did not show a clear seasonal fluctuation. The ratio of Aitken to accumulation mode particles, NAIT/NACCU, was varied from 0.1 to 14.2, with maximum during April to September months, probably suggesting the importance of new particle formation processes and subsequent particle growth. This finding suggests that dedicated long-term measurements of PNSDs (from a few nanometer to one micron) are required to systematically characterize new particle formation over the Indian subcontinent that has been largely unstudied so far. Contrarily, the low NAIT/NACCU during post-monsoon and winter indicated the dominance of biomass/biofuel burning aerosol emissions at this site.
This paper examines the effect of outdoor air pollution on respiratory disease in Kanpur, India, based on data from 2006. Exposure to air pollution is represented by annual emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from 11 source categories, established as a geographic information system (GIS)-based emission inventory in 2 km × 2 km grid. Respiratory disease is represented by number of patients who visited specialist pulmonary hospital with symptoms of respiratory disease. The results showed that (1) the main sources of air pollution are industries, domestic fuel burning, and vehicles; (2) the emissions of PM per grid are strongly correlated to the emissions of SO2 and NOx; and (3) there is a strong correlation between visits to a hospital due to respiratory disease and emission strength in the area of residence. These results clearly indicate that appropriate health and environmental monitoring, actions to reduce emissions to air, and further studies that would allow assessing the development in health status are necessary.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure of air pollution on lung functions in two differently polluted areas. One hundred twenty male subjects, in age group of 18 to 30 years from two polluted area of Kanpur, India were participated in the study. Anthropometric data were taken. Pulmonary function test was conducted in standing position. Pollution data of study period was taken from Central pollution control board and compared with the National ambient air quality standard. All data presented as mean ± SD and analysed by independent sample t test by using SPSS version 15. The anthropometric data were statistically not significant in two areas. Forced vital capacity and Forced expiatory flow 25-75% were statistically significantly different (p<0.05) and Peak expiratory flow and Vital capacity were also significantly different in two areas. The long term exposure of pollutant PM10 could reduce the forced vital capacity, Forced expiatory flow 25-75 %, Vital capacity and peak expiratory flow. Thus every attempt should be made towards lowering air pollution like alternate fuels such as CNG or hybrid technology.
In order to meet the challenges of growing air pollution for a developing nation and to measure the ambient fine particles (PM2.5, particles having aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) on routine basis an air sampler was designed, developed and evaluated in the field. The impactor removes particles greater than 2.5 μm from the air stream via impacting them onto a vacuum grease substrate and finer particles get eventually collected on a backup filter. Various impactor nozzles with conical geometry were designed based on the published theoretical design equations. A detail parametric investigation was carried out which resulted in the optimum impactor nozzle design. For this exercise, a novel dry aerosol generator was employed in addition to the well known time-of-flight instrument, APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, Model 3021, TSI Inc.). The average particle losses for the impactor nozzle as well as the sampler body were below 10% and the overall pressure drop (including a backup 47 mm filter) through the PM2.5 sampler was only 2 in. of H2O. This developed PM2.5 sampler operates at a flow rate of 15 LPM. Field performance of this sampler was evaluated through co-located sampling with a high volume PM2.5 reference sampler (HVS, GEM-BLI Model 2360, Tisch Environment Instrument) within the IIT Kanpur campus. The sampling period was 10 h long and it was carried out on six different days. The entire sets of filters were analyzed gravimetrically followed by their chemical analysis for elemental and anionic analyses. The particle mass, elemental, and anionic concentrations obtained with this newly developed PM2.5 sampler as well as those from the reference HVS sampler showed moderate to good correlation.
Human exposure to particulate matter can have significant harmful effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system. These effects vary with number, size, and chemical composition of particulate matter, which vary significantly with space and time. The Indian Institute of Technology–Kanpur (IITK), Kanpur, India, is a relatively clean academic campus in the northwest of a heavily polluted city, Kanpur. The major objectives of the study were to evaluate total exposure of fine and coarse fractions of PM10 to a typical IITK student resident in different indoor microenvironments within the campus; to evaluate personal exposure to student residents during outdoor trips; and to evaluate personal exposure to a typical student resident carrying out routine activities. In order to account for all the sources of particulate matter exposure, measurements on several different days during the pre-monsoon season were carried out in the most common indoor microenvironments in the campus and during outdoor trips outside the campus. A 15-channel optical particle counter (model 1.108, GRIMM) was used to measure continuous real-time particle size distribution from 0.3 to 20 μm diameter. Using this instrument, exposure for 1 h at different indoor microenvironments was determined. Both the effects of location and activity, which, in turn, account for specific indoor sources and number of occupants, respectively, were carefully evaluated. Re-suspension of particles due to movement of people was found to be a major source of coarse particulate matter exposure. On the other hand, combustion sources led to elevated fine particulate levels. Chalk dust was found to be the major source of fine particulate matter in classrooms. Similar results on other sources of particulate matter are discussed in the paper. To assess the personal average size resolved particulate exposure on a student making a day trip outside the campus, study trips to most common public places in the city in a commonly preferred vehicle were made. Striking correlations between sources/activities and increase in fine and/or coarse particle concentration were clearly visible. To investigate the daily personal exposure and its relation to the activities of a typical student residing in the campus, a 24-h exposure study was done on a student who maintained a time-activity diary. The results provide insight into possible sources and their interaction with human activities in modifying the human exposure levels. A comparison between different microenvironments has been attempted for the first time in an Indian scenario using a real-time aerosol measuring instrument.
This study estimates the monetary benefits to individuals from health damages avoided if air pollution is reduced in the urban industrial city of Kanpur in India. A notable feature of this study is that it uses data from weekly health-diaries collected for three seasons. For measuring monetary benefits, the study considers two major components of health cost that is incurred due to adverse effects of air pollution on health i.e., the loss in wages due to workdays lost from work and the expenditure incurred on mitigating activities. The study estimates that a representative working individual from Kanpur would gain Rs. 165.47 per year if air pollution were reduced to a safe level. The extrapolated annual benefits for the entire population in the city are Rs. 224.55 million.
Levels of fine Particulate Matter (PM fine), SO2 and NOx are interlinked through atmospheric reactions to a large extent. NOx, NH3, SO2, temperature and humidity are the important atmospheric constituents/conditions governing formation of fine particulate sulfates and nitrates. To understand the formation of inorganic secondary particles (nitrates and sulfates) in the atmosphere, a study was undertaken in Kanpur, India. Specifically, the study was designed to measure the atmospheric levels of NH + 4, Ca2 +, Mg2+, Na +, K +, NO – 3, SO2 – 4, CI – , NH3(gas),HNO3(gas),NO2andPM10(PM2.5/PM10ratio=0.74) covering winter and summer seasons and day and night samplings to capture the diurnal variations. Results showed NO – 3, SO2 – 4, NH + 4, K+ are found to be significantly high in winter season compared to the summer season. In winter, the molar ratio of NH + 4 to SO2 – 4 was found to be greater than 2:1. This higher molar ratio suggests that in addition to (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3 will be formed because of excess quantity of NH + 4 present. In summer, the molar ratio was less than 2:1 indicating deficit of NH + 4 to produce NH4NO3. The nitrogen conversion ratio (NO2 to NO3) was found to be nearly 50% in the study area that suggested quick conversion of NO2 into nitric acid. As an overall conclusion, this study finds that NH3 plays a vital role in the formation of fine inorganic secondary particles particularly so in winter months and there is a need to identify and assess sources of ammonia emissions in India.
In this study, the authors assessed the relationship between daily changes in respiratory health and particulate levels with diameters of (a) less than 10 μm (PM10) and (b) less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in Kanpur, India. The subjects (N = 91) were recruited from 3 areas in Kanpur: (1) Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur), which was a relatively clean area; (b) Vikas Nagar, a typical commercial area; and (c) finally, the residential area of Juhilal Colony. All subjects resided near to air quality monitoring sites. Air quality and peak expiratory flow rate samplings were conducted for 39 d. Once during the sampling period, lung-function tests (i.e., forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity) were performed on each subject. Subjects who resided at the clean site performed at predicted (i.e., acceptable) values more often than did subjects who lived at the remaining 2 sites. Subjects who lived at all 3 sites demonstrated a substantial average deficit in baseline forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values. The authors used a statistical model to estimate that an increase of 100 μg/m3 of the pollutant PM10 could reduce the mean peak expiratory flow rate of an individual by approximately 3.2 l/min.
Kanpur is the largest industrial metropolis in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. The atmosphere over the city is considerably polluted. An air quality evaluation study during 1973–1975 has yielded interesting results. This communication deals specifically with suspended particulate matter and its constituents collected from three sampling stations: Gwaltoli, Beconganj and Raipurwa. The study revealed that the 3-y average of the annual arithmetic means recorded for the three stations were 224, 256 and 298 μg m−3, respectively. The constituents of the suspended particulate matter evaluated are benzene extractable matter, heavy metals namely iron, lead, copper, zinc and chromium and acid radicals namely sulphate and nitrate. Interesting observations have been recorded on the relationship of suspended particulate matter and benzene extractable matter.
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