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Kochi

Clean Air Scorecard Air Quality Management Assessment

Clean Air Asia developed a comprehensive analysis tool for understanding the air quality management status in cities – the Clean Air Scorecard tool (CAST). CAST is an excel-based tool which incorporates three indices: (i) Air Pollution and Health, (ii) Clean Air Management Capacity, and (iii) Clean Air Policies and Actions, which taken together give the AQM status of a city.

Results

  • Air Pollution and Health Index: Moderate
  • City Air Management Capacity: Moderate
  • Clean Air Policies and actions: Moderate
  • Overall Score: Emerging

Consultative Stakeholder Meeting on Air Quality Solutions for Kochi City

In 2017, the stakeholder consultation was carried out in Kochi in the month of December . The capacity building workshop was held with the support of local partners Centre for Heritage, Environment and Development (C-HED) which is an autonomous institution functioning as the research and development wing of the Kochi Municipal Corporation (KMC) and the Kochi Metro Rail Limited (KMRL). In Kochi, the consultation was divided into three sessions. The first session focused on a general discussion by the various stakeholders in the city which was followed by a technical session by Faurecia Clean Mobility and a final Q&A session. The main objectives of this consultative meeting are given below:
  • To understand the city from the air pollution perspective
  • To appreciate the existing air pollution monitoring infrastructure and policies
  • To bring different stakeholders together and discuss the initiatives taken
  • To present technological solutions on air pollution monitoring and solutions to the stakeholders
  • To explore capacity building opportunities in Air Quality Management in Kochi.

Guidance Framework

Is a Framework prepared through a series of consultations by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Clean Air Asia was developed to provide guidance in implementing the long-term vision for urban air quality in Asia.

A. Air Action Plan

  • There is no specific air action plan for the city of Kochi, though they have certain initiatives under the Kerala Environmental Plan, 2009

 

There are actions which have been planned such as:

  1. Use of clean fuels, clean technologies, energy efficient devices.
  2. Adoption of sources specific and zone-wise air quality standards and set time bound plans to achieve the quality standards.
  3. Strictly enforce emission control measures in industrial and transport sectors.
  4. Incentives for environmentally benign substitutes, technologies, and energy conservation.
  5. Establishment of green belts with appropriate plant species of mitigating pollution.
  6. Promote appropriate technologies to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases
  7. Set up digital display boards showing atmospheric pollution at crucial areas in the State.

https://envt.kerala.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Kerala-State-Environment-Policy-2009-english.pdf

 

B.Monitoring Network of the city

  • According to the Urban Emission analysis under Air Pollution Knowledge and Assessment Program, they have mentioned that there are 7 manual air monitoring station and no continuous air monitoring station.

https://urbanemissions.info/wp-content/uploads/apna/docs/india_apna_2017_kochi.pdf

 

  • As per the Kerala State Pollution Control Board online real time monitoring station only shows one monitoring station in Vyttila, Kochi (Ernakulam District), installed and maintained by the Kerala State Pollution Control Board.

This information also available on the National Air Quality Index website maintained by Central Pollution Control Board.

https://keralapcb.glensserver.com/public/

https://app.cpcbccr.com/AQI_India/

 

C. Government Policies, Acts, Laws, Press Release

1.Central Acts

  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, amended 1987,

It is the Principal Act enacted in pursuance of the Stockholm Declaration, 1972 for prevention, control, and abatement of Air Pollution. They were amended in 1987 giving the Pollution Control Boards more authority and power.

http://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/No_14_1981.pdf

 

  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1982

Rules were enacted to support the Principal Act in better management and control of Air Pollution

http://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/GSR_712E.pdf

 

2. State Acts and Rules

  • Kerala Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1984

Most states formulated Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules which deal with meetings of the Board and its committees, power and duties of the Member-Secretary and appointment of employees, power and functions of the Board, the State Air Laboratory, the procedure to deal with appeals and the budget.

https://www.keralapcb.nic.in/cmsadmin/fileUploads/air_rule.pdf

 

D. State and National Set Standards

  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 2009.

Ambient air quality refers to the condition or quality of air surrounding us in the outdoors. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are the standards for ambient air quality set by Central Pollution Control board (CPCB) that is applicable nationwide. The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.

http://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Recved_national.pdf

A. Source Apportionment Study 

  • Kerala Pollution Control Board has not mentioned anything regarding the source apportionment study being taken up by them as of now.

 

  • In order to bring air quality solutions to Kochi and tackle the growing problem of air pollution, Clean Air Asia – an international not for profit that leads the Asia wide mission for better air quality in urban areas in support of Centre for Heritage, Environment and Development (c-hed) of the Cochin Municipal Corporation and the Kochi Metro Rail Limited – is organising a consultative multi-stakeholder meeting on Air Quality Solutions in Kochi to bring together officials from the Government, major research institutes and other stakeholders including medical practitioners to discuss an inclusive strategy for Air Quality Solution for Kochi. The air quality solutions are being showcased by experts from Faurecia Clean Mobility, an international organisation working in automotive industry.

https://cochinmunicipalcorporation.kerala.gov.in/documents/10157/da83312c-0a38-4741-a088-65d041096d27

 

Organisation Studies

  • The organisation Urban Emission, headed by Sarath Guttikunda have done study under their program, Air Pollution Knowledge and Assessment, where they have done source apportionment of various cities including Kochi.

The analysis shows that the main contributor to PM2.5 is ‘from outside in urban airshed’ followed by the transport emission.

The analysis also found that the brick kilns around the urban airshed are fuelled by coal, agri-waste and other biomass. These kilns can benefit from a technology upgrade in order to improve energy efficiency, open waste burning is also a major challenge which requires stricter regulation to address the issues.

 https://urbanemissions.info/wp-content/uploads/apna/docs/india_apna_2017_kochi.pdf

 

Scholar Research

  • PM10 source identification using trajectory based potential source apportionment (TraPSA) toolkit at Kochi, India, Atmospheric Pollution Research, June 2020 – Afifa Kombanezhathu Shanavas, Chuanlong Zhou, Rathish Menon and Philip K. Hopke

A recently developed open source tool kit named the Trajectory based Potential Source Apportionment (TraPSA) was used to identify the sources of respirable particulates at Kochi, India. Using 24-h average particulate matter data from samples collected at five regulatory monitoring stations over the five-year period from January 2011 to October 2016, local and regional scale analyses were made. Most of the stations indicated the contribution from local traffic activities during low wind conditions and from a nearby industrial area especially during high speed winds. Back trajectory analysis identified potential source areas in Kerala as well as in nearby state of Tamil Nadu as contributing to the air quality at Kochi. Arabian sea on the western side was also observed to be a potential source area for Kochi. The study demonstrated the utility of TrapSA as a tool for deriving information about the potential source areas affecting particulate matter mass concentrations.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1309104220301781

 

B. Pervious Year Trend

  • Air Quality Data from year 2018 -2020 is available on ENVIS centre: Kerala

http://www.kerenvis.nic.in/Database/AirQuality_3587.aspx

 

  • Air Quality data from year 2007 – 2018 is available on ENVIS Centre: Kerala

http://kerenvis.nic.in/Database/WaterandAirQuality_1053.aspx

A. City-specific studies

  • A preliminary approach of the spatio-temporal distribution of cationic aerosol components in the ambient atmosphere of Kochi, India, Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 7, Issue 6, November 2016 – P.K. Gayathree Devi, C.H. Sujatha.

Kochi City, situated in the vicinity of the industrial hub and marine niche, is significantly loaded with ionic compounds and get into the atmospheric aerosols which deteriorate the health status of the environment.  The study revealed that the water-soluble Na+ ion is highlighted in the estuarine site (E1) with momentous load at the coastal site (C1) implying the sea salt influence at these two sites. These inferences justify the influence of point sources such as industrial, crustal and construction related activities affecting in and around this metropolis.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1309104216300101

  • Spatio-Temporal Assessment of air pollutants in Kochi city, Kerala, India, Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering and Technology, Volume 5 Issue 2 March 2016 –  K. Gaythree Devi, C.H. Sujatha, P.S. Akhil and Rajesh R

The study recorded that one of the riverine sites (R2) is exponentially showing enrichment in SO2 concentration which can be speculated for severe industrial emissions and this site can described as the “Hot Spot Realm”. The enrichment of NO2 portrays the pollution source as through vehicular emissions. Regarding the temporal trend, vagueness exists throughout the analysis more than the spatial allocation trend. It is reflected from the analysis that both climatology and source effect play significant role in pollutant dispersion. The Air Quality Index (AQI) values calculated for SO2 and NO2 gases pointed out that Kochi area is moderately polluted.

https://www.researchgate.net/

  • Metal signature of atmospheric aerosol from Kochi, The Queen of Arabian Sea, Kerala, India, Scientific Information Database, Volume 2, Number 3, 2016 – P. K. Gayathree Devi, P.S. Akhil, C.H. Sujatha

The present research article highlights the metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe) distribution pattern in the RSPM generated in different hot spot sites located at Kochi, the Queen of Arabian Sea. Two sampling phases are selected in order to check the consistency in pollution trend after a two-year gap and are described in Phase I and Phase II, respectively. Estuarine and riverine zone expresses the overall enrichment pattern with slight difference at coastal regime in phase I. In phase II, insignificant metal load with irregular pattern is observed. Source apportionment study reveals that major sources of metals are from automobile exhausts and the estuarine zone is entangled with 45.9%.

https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=511670

  • Characterisation of particulate matter for toxic metal in ambient air of Kochi City, India, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, March 2005 – D.G. Gajghate and A.D. Bhanarkar

Measurement of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and analysis of toxic metals in air of Kochi city was carried out for a period of one year, 1997. Seasonal variations of RSPM and toxic metals are analysed to identify the influence of meteorological parameters. The air pollution problem with respect to RSPM and lead is moderately significant especially in winter season. The profile of other toxic metals in RSPM is not much significant. Domestic fuel used mainly coal/wood and petrol/diesel fuelled motor vehicles are the major contributors to the RSPM and toxic metals. Various control strategies are delineated for reduction of ambient RSPM and toxic metals in air of Kochi city.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10661-005-4535-7

  • Economic impacts of air pollution on human health and property value: a study of Cochin Industrial Agglomeration, Department Of Applied Economics Cochin University of Science and Technology, November 2003 – P.K. Baby

The objective of the study (thesis) is to provide a systematic descriptive documentation of the nature of air pollution of the Cochin industrial agglomeration, to estimate willingness to pay for morbidity reduction due to air pollution and to estimate the value of welfare loss in the purchase of property due to reduced air quality.

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.915.604&rep=rep1&type=pdf  

  1. News articles
  • Vehicle pollution level shot up by 539% in Kochi: Study, The Times of India, 2nd July, 2020

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kochi/vehicle-pollution-level-shot-up-by-539-in-city-study/articleshow/76737481.cms

  • Finally, Kochi breathes some clean air, The Times of India, 16th April 2020

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kochi/finally-kochi-breathes-some-clean-air/articleshow/75172070.cms

  • Carbon Monoxide levels remain high at M.G. Road in Kochi, The Hindu, 6th April, 2020

https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/carbon-monoxide-levels-remain-high-at-mg-road-in-kochi/article31274307.ece

  • Pollution level down; Kerala breathes easy, The New Indian Express, 2nd April 2020

https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/kochi/2020/apr/02/pollution-level-down-kerala-breathes-easy-2124540.html

  • Air quality level in Kochi improved on Janata curfew day, The Hindu, 24th March, 2020

https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/air-quality-level-in-kochi-improved-on-janata-curfew-day/article31155223.ece

  • India’s first commercial LNG bus launched in Kochi, The New Indian Express, 27th February, 2020

https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/kochi/2020/feb/27/indias-first-commercial-lng-bus-launched-in-kochi-2109413.html

  • Eleven cities from Kerala now under NCAP scanner, The Times of India, 27th February 2020

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kochi/eleven-cities-now-under-ncap-scanner/articleshow/74325983.cms

  • Pollution levels in Kochi hasn’t left its citizens gasping for breath, The New Indian Express, 14th November 2019

https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/air-quality-level-in-kochi-improved-on-janata-curfew-day/article31155223.ece

  • Kochi wakes up to thick blanket of fog, The New Indian Express, 17th October 2019

https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/kochi/2019/oct/17/kochi-wakes-up-to-thick-blanket-of-fog-2048730.html

  • Blanket of fog envelops Kochi, The Hindu, 16th October 2019

https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/blanket-of-fog-envelops-city/article29709108.ece

  • India Pollution Watch: Delhi air quality see improvement, AQI in Kochi most favourable in country, Mirror Now News, 17th July 2019

https://www.timesnownews.com/mirror-now/civic-issues/article/india-pollution-watch-delhi-air-quality-sees-improvement-aqi-in-kochi-most-favourable-in-country/455037

  • Air quality in Kochi takes a hit, The New Indian Express, 3rd April, 2019

https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/kochi/2019/apr/03/air-quality-in-kochi-takes-a-hit-1959416.html

  • Study on pollution ranks Kochi as the 5th cleanest, The Hindu, 25th August 2018

https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/study-on-pollution-ranks-kochi-as-the-5th-cleanest/article24775462.ece

  • Pollution levels leave a trail of dust, The New Indian Express, 13th November 2018

https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/kochi/2018/nov/13/pollution-levels-leave-a-trail-of-dust-1897295.html

  • Kerala’s air quality much better, says study, The Times of India, 30th January 2018

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kochi/keralas-air-quality-much-better-says-study/articleshow/62705290.cms

  • Shaking your head at Delhi smog? Kochi is not perfect either, The Times of India, 12th November 2017

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kochi/shaking-your-head-at-delhi-smog-kochi-is-not-perfect-either/articleshow/61614049.cms

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A. CAST Study 

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A. Way Forward 

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