Clean Air Asia developed a comprehensive analysis tool for understanding the air quality management status in cities – the Clean Air Scorecard tool (CAST). CAST is an excel-based tool which incorporates three indices: (i) Air Pollution and Health, (ii) Clean Air Management Capacity, and (iii) Clean Air Policies and Actions, which taken together give the AQM status of a city.
A. Air Action Plan
There are actions which have been planned such as:
B.Monitoring Network of the city
This information also available on the National Air Quality Index website maintained by Central Pollution Control Board.
C. Government Policies, Acts, Laws, Press Release
It is the Principal Act enacted in pursuance of the Stockholm Declaration, 1972 for prevention, control, and abatement of Air Pollution. They were amended in 1987 giving the Pollution Control Boards more authority and power.
Rules were enacted to support the Principal Act in better management and control of Air Pollution
2. State Acts and Rules
Most states formulated Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules which deal with meetings of the Board and its committees, power and duties of the Member-Secretary and appointment of employees, power and functions of the Board, the State Air Laboratory, the procedure to deal with appeals and the budget.
D. State and National Set Standards
Ambient air quality refers to the condition or quality of air surrounding us in the outdoors. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are the standards for ambient air quality set by Central Pollution Control board (CPCB) that is applicable nationwide. The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
A. Source Apportionment Study
The analysis shows that the main contributor to PM2.5 is ‘from outside in urban airshed’ followed by the transport emission.
The analysis also found that the brick kilns around the urban airshed are fuelled by coal, agri-waste and other biomass. These kilns can benefit from a technology upgrade in order to improve energy efficiency, open waste burning is also a major challenge which requires stricter regulation to address the issues.
A recently developed open source tool kit named the Trajectory based Potential Source Apportionment (TraPSA) was used to identify the sources of respirable particulates at Kochi, India. Using 24-h average particulate matter data from samples collected at five regulatory monitoring stations over the five-year period from January 2011 to October 2016, local and regional scale analyses were made. Most of the stations indicated the contribution from local traffic activities during low wind conditions and from a nearby industrial area especially during high speed winds. Back trajectory analysis identified potential source areas in Kerala as well as in nearby state of Tamil Nadu as contributing to the air quality at Kochi. Arabian sea on the western side was also observed to be a potential source area for Kochi. The study demonstrated the utility of TrapSA as a tool for deriving information about the potential source areas affecting particulate matter mass concentrations.
B. Pervious Year Trend
A. City-specific studies
Kochi City, situated in the vicinity of the industrial hub and marine niche, is significantly loaded with ionic compounds and get into the atmospheric aerosols which deteriorate the health status of the environment. The study revealed that the water-soluble Na+ ion is highlighted in the estuarine site (E1) with momentous load at the coastal site (C1) implying the sea salt influence at these two sites. These inferences justify the influence of point sources such as industrial, crustal and construction related activities affecting in and around this metropolis.
The study recorded that one of the riverine sites (R2) is exponentially showing enrichment in SO2 concentration which can be speculated for severe industrial emissions and this site can described as the “Hot Spot Realm”. The enrichment of NO2 portrays the pollution source as through vehicular emissions. Regarding the temporal trend, vagueness exists throughout the analysis more than the spatial allocation trend. It is reflected from the analysis that both climatology and source effect play significant role in pollutant dispersion. The Air Quality Index (AQI) values calculated for SO2 and NO2 gases pointed out that Kochi area is moderately polluted.
The present research article highlights the metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe) distribution pattern in the RSPM generated in different hot spot sites located at Kochi, the Queen of Arabian Sea. Two sampling phases are selected in order to check the consistency in pollution trend after a two-year gap and are described in Phase I and Phase II, respectively. Estuarine and riverine zone expresses the overall enrichment pattern with slight difference at coastal regime in phase I. In phase II, insignificant metal load with irregular pattern is observed. Source apportionment study reveals that major sources of metals are from automobile exhausts and the estuarine zone is entangled with 45.9%.
Measurement of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and analysis of toxic metals in air of Kochi city was carried out for a period of one year, 1997. Seasonal variations of RSPM and toxic metals are analysed to identify the influence of meteorological parameters. The air pollution problem with respect to RSPM and lead is moderately significant especially in winter season. The profile of other toxic metals in RSPM is not much significant. Domestic fuel used mainly coal/wood and petrol/diesel fuelled motor vehicles are the major contributors to the RSPM and toxic metals. Various control strategies are delineated for reduction of ambient RSPM and toxic metals in air of Kochi city.
The objective of the study (thesis) is to provide a systematic descriptive documentation of the nature of air pollution of the Cochin industrial agglomeration, to estimate willingness to pay for morbidity reduction due to air pollution and to estimate the value of welfare loss in the purchase of property due to reduced air quality.
A. Urban Local Bodies notification on Air.
B. Communication Portal for local government (e – governance)
C. Public engagement activities.
A. CAST Study
B. Technical Knowledge Sharing
A. Way Forward
B. Tool Kit