Clean Air Asia developed a comprehensive analysis tool for understanding the air quality management status in cities – the Clean Air Scorecard tool (CAST). CAST is an excel-based tool which incorporates three indices: (i) Air Pollution and Health, (ii) Clean Air Management Capacity, and (iii) Clean Air Policies and Actions, which taken together give the AQM status of a city.
The consultation was held with the support of local partner Centre for Sustainable Development (CfSD), Nagpur in December, 2017. The consultation sought to facilitate a dialogue with city officials on innovations in technology for Air Quality Management for the city. The discussion was based on three thematic threads; (i) Integrated Monitoring Solutions for Assessing Air Quality; (ii) Initiatives to Facilitate Air Action Priorities and (iii) Innovative Transport Strategies for Mainstreaming Air Quality into Urban Development. The consultation was attended by officials from the city government, the smart cities mission and representative from NEERI amongst others.
A. Air Action Plan
Air Action Plan are set of measures and initiatives that the State Governments and Departments along with the inclusion of NGOs and CSOs undertake to provide a clean and healthy environment to the citizens as envisaged in the Constitution of India.
The Nagpur City Action Plan has laid down short- term and long-term plans for tackling pollution in the city. Under various had such as tackling vehicle emission, industrial pollution there mix of short – term and long – term plans. They are plans to mitigate resuspension of dust, road design improvement, burning of open waste, construction and demolition activities etc.
Under the Government of India Smart City Mission, Nagpur is one of 100 cities which has been chosen. In the approach of the Smart Cities Mission, the objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and decent quality life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment. The focus is on sustainable and inclusive development and the idea is to look at compact areas to make them more citizen friendly and self-sustainable.
The implementation of the plan is divided into Area Based plan and Pan City Plan.
Key Ideas and Observations
B. Monitoring Network of the city
The city has 1 Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Station installed by the Central Pollution Control Board and 4 Manual Ambient Air Monitoring Station installed by the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board
Maharashtra Pollution Control Board, has published annual reports of the Air Monitoring upto 2018 – 2019
C. Government Policies, Acts, Laws, Press Release
It is the Principal Act enacted in pursuance of the Stockholm Declaration, 1972 for prevention, control, and abatement of Air Pollution. They were amended in 1987 giving the Pollution Control Boards more authority and power.
Rules were enacted to support the Principal Act in better management and control of Air Pollution
2.State Act, Policies and Laws
D. State and National Set Standards
Ambient air quality refers to the condition or quality of air surrounding us in the outdoors. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are the standards for ambient air quality set by Central Pollution Control board (CPCB) that is applicable nationwide. The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
A. Source Apportionment Study
The study analyses the chemical composition and estimations of the sources contributing to PM2.5 Nagpur City. The study concluded that the concentration of PM2.5 in Nagpur city were exceeding the NAAQS promulgated by the CPCB. The major contributor to PM2.5 is the Vehicular emission followed by secondary aerosol.
Urban Emission an organisation founded and headed by Sarath Guttikunda, did a study under their Air Pollution Knowledge Assessment (APnA) city program. Nagpur has one Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitors, but the suggests that for efficient Air Quality monitoring the city needs at least 22 continuous air monitoring stations. The key pollution contributor is the industrial sector.
A. City-specific studies
The report shows an overview of air quality status and sources of air pollution in the State of Maharashtra including Nagpur. It also chalks out reforms which would be needed to implemented to achieve the 30% reduction goal set in National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)
The report highlights key regions in India that are taking actions to improve air quality and protect public health, this includes the city of Nagpur, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Raipur, Pune, Bengaluru, and Chennai. The report also suggest recommendation to reduce air pollution.
The study analyses the impact of PM2.5 on health and how it also influences the economy. The study has been conducted in 9 areas of Nagpur, covering urban, peri-urban and rural environments, from February 2013 to June 2014. The estimates revealed substantial PM2.5-related health burden and economic loss in 2013, with increasing trend owing to future changes in population demography. In order to obtain optimum health and economic benefits however, immediate priority should be given to pollution sources that lead to the greatest level of exposure and adverse health effects. In this case, we recommend the total phasing-out of solid fuel use for cooking and heating in Nagpur district by 2023, alongside effective waste collection and disposal system and a comprehensive approach for reducing vehicular, industrial and construction emissions.
The study assesses human health risk in 10 cities in Maharashtra in terms of mortality and morbidity due to three critical pollutants. The results show that excess number of mortality and morbidity in Nagpur, Thane, Aurangabad, Kolhapur and Chandrapur. The study shows the importance of evaluation and assessment of health impacts of air quality on a local scale to protect the environment.
The study was an attempt to find the quality of the ambient air in the West Nagpur Zone. Analytical results show average RSPM concentration in residential, commercial, and industrial areas for winter and summer season does not exceed the NAAQS standards. Again considering the average concentrations of RSPM for all three locations it was found that the Air quality index (AQI) for winter and summer season, the residential area comes under good category i.e. varying between 0-50 µg/m3, the commercial area comes under moderate category i.e. varying between 51-100 µg/m3 during winter and under good category during summer while the industrial area comes under moderate category in both winter and summer season.
The study analyses the contribution of various air pollutants in the industrial area of Nagpur for the period from September 2010 to February 2011. The main contributor was seen to be Suspended Particulate Matter. It also shows the seasonal variation of the air pollutants. The study suggests and recommends certain measures to control air pollution from industries.
The study analyses the Particulate size distribution of PM10 and associated trace metal concentrations carried out in residential cum commercial area of Mahal at Nagpur City. The average concentration of PM10 and fine particulate matter was found to be 300 and 136.7 µg/m3 respectively which was exceeding the limit of the Central Pollution Control Board.
The paper analyses the ambient air quality monitoring to study the temporal and special pattern in the distribution of PM10 and associated heavy metal content in the atmosphere of Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India during 2001 as well as in 2006. PM10 fraction was observed to exceed the stipulated standards in both years. It was also observed that minimum range of PM10 was observed to be increased in 2006 indicating increase in human activity during night-time also.
Total load of heavy metals was found to be increased in 2006 with prominent increase in zinc, lead, and nickel in the environment. Public health impacts of heavy metals as well as certain preventive measures to mitigate the impact of heavy metals on public health are also summarized.
A. Communication Portal for local government (e – governance)
A. CAST Study
B. Technical Knowledge Sharing
A. Way Forward
B. Tool Kit