A CLEAN AIR ASIA INDIA INITIATIVE
The document serves as serve as a technical specification for accurate, reliable measurement of particulate matter using Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) with reference to their use to support an emissions trading scheme. The term CEMS refers to the instrumentation and software required to measure emissions from a stationary source on a practically continuous basis.
The study shows the economic valuation of the health impacts of air pollution on the people of Mumbai city. The valuation of mortality and morbidity in the study had been carried out by taking into account an average income for different strata of society. So also, willingness to pay for health damage has also been taken as an average for the different strata of society. The study uses lost salary approach to evaluate the economic losses due health impacts of air pollution.
In 2008, An Epidemiological study was carried out by Chittranjan National Cancer Institute (CNCI), Kolkata, under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to assess the air pollution related respiratory diseases among the residents of Delhi. The Study involved Questionnaire survey, clinical assessment, lung function by spirometry , assessment of genotoxic effects, correlation between health effect and air quality etc. The results of the study showed a fatal effects on the people’s health.
The study sought to estimate benefits from sustainable transport intervention in the city of Indore in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh through the construction of a bus rapid transit (BRT) system along a main traffic corridor. The study showed that more than 96 deaths could be prevented from 2013 to 2017 along the BRT corridor when compared with current trends in motorization with no BRT system investment. The reduction in emissions between a business-as-usual scenario and post-BRT scenario was 11%.
The following document provides information about the extreme pollution events that took place in the country, their cause and their impacts.
In a report released by Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)- Delhi, the researchers for the first time have shown that GHGs released by human activities are solely responsible for the warming climate in India, where average temperatures have risen by as much as half a degree in five decades.
CPCB has laid certain emission standards for the incinerators of hazardous waste which has to be complied by all the incinerators in India.
The present study deals with the impact of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties during October 2006 and 2007 over Punjab State, India using ground-based measurements and multi-satellite data.
According to an economic survey in 2014-2015, India being the 3rd largest emitter of GHG has been taking steps to reduce its CO2 emissions. The Govt. of India has increased the excise duty on fossil fuels such as Petrol and Diesel which acts as an implicit Carbon Tax. Also, Coal Cess was increased from 50Rs/ton to 100Rs/ton, adding to the set of green action taken by the Govt. Their reports say that there will be a net reduction on 0.6% of India’s emissions in less than a year.
This report published by MoEF(Ministry of environment and forest) includes the five different studies of institutions such as The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), Integrated Research and Action for Development (IRADe), and Jadavpur University. McKinsey and Company on the estimation of Green House Gases over the next two decades.
In this study, impact of vehicular traffic emissions on black carbon aerosol mass concentration, trace gases and ground reaching solar radiation were analysed during nationwide truck strike of 5–12 January, 2009 over urban environment of Hyderabad. The study showed the impact of diesel operated trucks on urban air quality.
The International Institute of Population Sciences, Mumbai did a case study to measure the health impacts of air pollution on the people of Mumbai. Information collected includes the socio-economic and demographic characteristics, existing symptoms such as cough, cold, phlegm, etc.; history of disease and the findings of the clinical examination in the areas such as Garodia Nagar of Chembur area, as study area (critically polluted area), and Borivali as the control area (the low level of air polluted area). It is clearly indicated that significant health differentials exist between a high-polluted area and a low or less polluted area.
In this study PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and CO concentrations were investigated in a naturally ventilated school building located near an urban roadway in Chennai. Monitoring was done during the winter (34 days) and summer (26 days) of 2011. The influence of classroom occupancy, comfort parameters, outdoor traffic and meteorological parameters on indoor pollutant concentrations were also investigated. Results showed good correlation between PM with comfort and outdoor meteorological parameters.
This report was published in 2010 by IIT Kanpur. The report identifies and inventories the emission sources in Kanpur City, air pollution hotspots in Kanpur city and dispersion and Receptor modelling studies for PM10 in ambient air to arrive at source apportionment. It The report includes the air quality data of three different seasons in a year i.e. summer, Post monsoon and winter at 7 different sampling locations based on their land use pattern such as residential, commercial and industrial. The report also includes the future pollution growth in the city and an air action plan for Kanpur city to curb the air pollution in the city.
Worsening air quality in the last two decades has emerged as one of the major reasons for high numbers of premature deaths, says a new study conducted in 11 north Indian cities. The report titled ‘Know what you breathe’, released by Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)-Delhi in collaboration with environmental NGO Centre for Environment and Energy Development (CEED). The report found annual mortality linked to air pollution to be in the range of 150-300 persons per 1 lakh population.
CPCB has identified list of polluted cities in which the prescribed National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are violated. These cities have been identified based on ambient air quality data obtained (2011-2015) under National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The list includes the pollutants’ level which are being violated.
This report by the Centre for Environment, Energy and Development summarize the ambient air quality of Patna during the winter months (November to February) for the year 2016-2017. It also to investigates the level of exposure of air pollution.
The report includes a study which was carried out by Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) over a period of 12 months in order to get representative data incorporating seasonal variation on air quality of Pune city. The report consists of a source apportionment study of PM10 using receptor modelling, Dispersion models in order to predict spatial distribution of pollutants, Emission inventory of various pollutants in Pune city and determining the air pollution hotspots in Pune.
This report describes the results of time-series analysis of the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 pm (PM10) on mortality in metropolitan Chennai, India (formerly Madras).
Every year in India, around 26.45% premature deaths (among people above 25 years) are due to air pollution from thermal power plants and industries. While most of the coal-fired plants are violating air pollution standards thanks to the extension on the already-missed deadline given by the central government, the compliance of the standards by the currently operating and under-construction plants can actually avoid 1.24 lakh premature deaths annually. Also, 8.58 lakh premature deaths and 40% pollution levels in India can be reduced if mitigation measures are implemented. This was revealed in the latest study by Louisiana State University (LSU) which pointed out that emission from thermal power plants is the largest single-point source of pollution in India.
As per Schedule-I, CPCB has laid down emission standards for more than 100 industries which is has to be complied by all the industries.
As per Schedule-II of Bio-medical Waste management rules, CPCB has laid down certain operating and emission standards for the disposal of Bio-medical Waste by incinerator and by Plasma Pyrolysis or Gasification.
There is growing concern that air pollution may have adverse impacts on crops in developing countries. The magnitude of response indicated that at peri-urban sites SO2, NO2 and O3 were all contributing to these effects, whereas at rural sites NO2 and O3 combinations appeared to have more influence. The quality of seed was also found to be negatively influenced by the ambient levels of pollutants. It is concluded that the air pollution regime of Varanasi City causes a major threat to mung bean plants, both in terms of yield and crop quality, with serious implications for the nutrition of the urban poor.
Economic globalization and concomitant growth in international trade since the late 1990s have profoundly reorganized global production activities and related CO2 emissions. Here we show trade among developing nations (i.e., South-South trade) has more than doubled between 2004 and 2011, which reflects a new phase of globalization. Some production activities are relocating from China and India to other developing countries, particularly raw materials and intermediate goods production in energy-intensive sectors. In turn, the growth of CO2 emissions embodied in Chinese exports has slowed or reversed, while the emissions embodied in exports from less-developed regions such as Vietnam and Bangladesh have surged. Although China’s emissions may be peaking, ever more complex supply chains are distributing energy-intensive industries and their CO2 emissions throughout the global South. This trend may seriously undermine international efforts to reduce global emissions that increasingly rely on rallying voluntary contributions of more, smaller, and less-developed nations.